Real Frogs (Ranidae)

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Real Frogs (Ranidae)
Real Frogs (Ranidae)

Video: Real Frogs (Ranidae)

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True frogs are one of the largest families of the order of tailless amphibians, uniting more than 400 species from 32 genera. The fauna of Russia has only one subfamily and one genus Rana. The skin is smooth or slightly lumpy. The pupil of the eye is horizontal. Swimming membranes on the hind legs are well developed. The upper jaw has teeth. Caviar in the form of lumps.

Long-legged frog (Meristogenys amoropalamus), photo amphibian photo
Long-legged frog (Meristogenys amoropalamus), photo amphibian photo

Long-legged frog (Meristogenys amoropalamus). Photo by Ray Hamilton

In tadpoles, the branchial opening is on the left side of the body; anus on the right side, asymmetric and opens closer to the lower edge of the tail. The crest on the back does not extend forward beyond the vertical of the branchial opening.

Forest frog (Rana sylvatica), photo tailless amphibians photography
Forest frog (Rana sylvatica), photo tailless amphibians photography

Forest frog (Rana sylvatica)

In frogs, hind legs are long, muscular, due to which they can make large jumps (over 1 m). Tongue at the back with a notch. The skin is moist, thin, does not tolerate prolonged drying. The frogs inhabiting us can be divided into two groups: brown and green. Brown frogs (grass and sharp-faced) have a brown body coloration. There is a dark eye-spot on the head. After the breeding season, they go far from water bodies. At the end of August, they begin to gather in large masses to wintering sites (to non-freezing springs). They feed on insects, molluscs, worms.

Shore frog (Odorrana hosii), photo amphibian photo
Shore frog (Odorrana hosii), photo amphibian photo

Shore frog (Odorrana hosii)

The extremely diverse amphibians of this family are characterized by the presence of teeth on the upper jaw, cylindrical, unexpanded (or slightly widened) transverse processes of the sacral vertebra, and the absence of intercalated cartilage between the phalanges of the fingers. Terminal phalanges of fingers without intercalated cartilage. The transverse processes of the sacral vertebra are cylindrical. When mating, the male grasps the female behind the forelimbs (axillary amplexus). Eggs are usually deposited in water, but in the tropics there are cases of direct development of ground eggs and various forms of care for offspring.

Shrub frog (Hylarana nigrovittata), photo photograph tailless amphibians
Shrub frog (Hylarana nigrovittata), photo photograph tailless amphibians

Shrub frog (Hylarana nigrovittata)

The eastern hemisphere should be considered the likely center of the emergence of amphibians of this family, with Africa becoming the place of their greatest differentiation. Nowadays they are distributed all over the world, with the exception of the Arctic regions, Australia and the extreme south of South America.

Sharp-faced frog (Rana arvalis), photo photograph of an amphibian
Sharp-faced frog (Rana arvalis), photo photograph of an amphibian

Sharp-faced frog (Rana arvalis)

The most extensive genus - real frogs (Rana) - unites more than 200 species. This includes both very small species with a maximum body length of up to 30 mm, and the largest of the tailless amphibians - the goliath frog, reaching 325 mm.

Rocky shore (Staurois natator), photo photograph tailless amphibians
Rocky shore (Staurois natator), photo photograph tailless amphibians

Rocky shore (Staurois natator)

Most of the species are terrestrial, live in water bodies or near them, but there are also arboreal forms (in the tropics). Some species live in damp places and are connected with water only during the breeding season (in the CIS fauna these include brown frogs: sharp-faced - R. terrestris and grass - R. tetnporaria), others lead predominantly aquatic life (aquatic "green" frogs - lake - R. ridibunda, reaching 17 cm in length, and smaller pond - R. escutenta). They feed mainly on flying insects; large individuals also grab small vertebrates: juveniles of fish, small frogs and tadpoles, young snakes and even chicks of near-water birds and small mouse-like rodents. The lake frog and some other frogs are sometimes used for food and even bred on special farms.

Dark-throated frog (Pelophylax lateralis), photo photograph of an amphibian
Dark-throated frog (Pelophylax lateralis), photo photograph of an amphibian

Dark-throated frog (Pelophylax lateralis)

Taxonomy of the family Real frogs (Ranidae):

  • Genus: Amolops Cope = Cascade
  • Genus: Babina Thompson, 1912 =

    Species: Babina adenopleura Boulenger, 1909 = Melodic frog

  • Genus: Clinotarsus =
  • Genus: Glandirana =
  • Genus: Huia =
  • Genus: Humerana =
  • Genus: Hylarana =
  • Genus: Meristogenys =
  • Genus: Odorrana =
  • Genus: Pelophylax Fitzinger, 1843 = Green, or water frogs

    • Species: Pelophylax ridibundus Pallas, 1771 = Lake frog
    • Species: Pelophylax terentievi = Terentiev's Frog
  • Genus: Pseudorana =
  • Genus: Pterorana =
  • Genus: Rana Linnaeus, 1758 = Frogs

    • Species: Rana amurensis Boul., 1886 = Siberian frog
    • Species: Rana areolata Baird & Girard, 1852 = Gopher's frog
    • Species: Rana arvalis Nilsson, 1842 = Sharp-faced frog
    • Species: Rana asiatica Bedriaga, 1898 = Central Asian frog
    • Species: Rana camerani Boulenger, 1886 = Transcaucasian frog
    • Species: Rana capito LeConte, 1855 = Gopher's Frog
    • Species: Rana catesbeiana Shaw, 1802 = Bullfrog
    • Species: Rana clamitans Latreille, 1801 = Screaming frog
    • Species: Rana dalmatina Bonapte, 1840 = Eager frog
    • Species: Rana esculenta Linnaeus, 1758 = Edible frog
    • Species: Rana japonica Boulenger, 1879 = Japanese frog
    • Species: Rana lessonae Camerano, 1882 = Pond frog
    • Species: Rana macrocnemis Boulenger, 1885 = Asian Minor Frog
    • Species: Rana nigromaculata Hall., 1860 = Black spotted frog
    • Species: Rana okaloosae Moler, 1985 = Florida swamp frog
    • Species: Rana pipiens Schreber, 1782 = Leopard frog
    • Species: Rana pirica Matsui, 1991 = Hokkaido frog
    • Species: Rana rugosa Schlegel, 1838 = Tuberous frog
    • Species: Rana semiplicata Nikolsky, 1918 = Far Eastern frog
    • Species: Rana sylvatica LeConte, 1825 = Forest frog
    • Species: Rana temporaria Linnaeus, 1758 = Grass frog
    • Rana virgatipes Cope, 1891 = Carpenter Frog
  • Genus: Sanguirana =
  • Genus: Staurois Cope = Coastal

Literature:

1. N. P. Naumov, N. N. Kartashev. Zoology of vertebrates. Inferior chordates, jawless, fish, amphibians. Moscow "Higher School", 1979

2. AG Bannikov, I.S. Darevsky, A.K. Rustamov. Amphibians and reptiles of the USSR. Publishing house "Mysl", Moscow, 1971

3. IM Oliger. A short guide to vertebrates. Moscow, 1955

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