Real Toads (Bufonidae)

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Real Toads (Bufonidae)
Real Toads (Bufonidae)

Video: Real Toads (Bufonidae)

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The toad family is distributed throughout the world, except for the circumpolar regions, and unites about 650 species. About 50 species of Australian toads inhabit various, including the desert regions of Australia. Desert species are active only during the humid season; some lay eggs in shelters on the banks of water bodies: rain streams carry eggs into the water, where tadpoles hatch from them. Most toads are completely devoid of jaw teeth. Of the 7 subfamilies, on the territory of Russia and neighboring countries, only one is characterized by the absence of teeth - the toad itself.

Far Eastern toad (Bufo gargarizans), photo photography amphibians
Far Eastern toad (Bufo gargarizans), photo photography amphibians

Far Eastern toad (Bufo gargarizans)

The terminal phalanges of the fingers are simple, not expanded into discs. The transverse processes of the sacral vertebra are cylindrical or extended.

Toads are distinguished by relatively short (compared to frogs) hind legs, due to which they can only make small jumps, no more than 20 cm. The skin is drier than that of frogs. There are many warts on the skin. There are many glands in the skin that secrete corrosive mucus. Conduct night life, on the day hiding in various secluded places: under rocks, logs, in cracks in the soil. In water they are found only during the breeding season, in April-May. They feed on insects, worms, molluscs, therefore they can be considered useful, especially in gardens where slugs are exterminated.

The pupil of the eye is horizontal. The parotid glands (parotids) are well developed behind the eyes. The skin is lumpy, warty. Laying of eggs in the form of a cord.

Malay hard toad (Phrynoidis asper), photo amphibian
Malay hard toad (Phrynoidis asper), photo amphibian

Malay hard toad (Phrynoidis asper)

The bulk of the species (about 250) from the subfamily of true toads belongs to the genus Bufo, whose representatives are distributed throughout all continents except Australia.

Australian toads are closely related to true toads. Australian toads are the most primitive species. Thus, the Australian desert toad (Chiroleptes platicephalus) is distinguished by its ability to oppose the inner toe of the forelegs to all the others, a large head, highly developed swimming membranes that connect the toes of the hind legs, and an implicit tympanic membrane. Her upper jaw is with teeth. The dry period is carried out by burrowing in a hole, preliminarily storing water in large subcutaneous cavities and in the body cavity.

Representatives of the South American toads, of which there are about 200 species, inhabit the south of North America, the West Indies, Central and South America. They live in trees, grass, bushes, and also lead a semi-aquatic lifestyle.

Long-legged slender toad (Leptophryne borbonica), photo photo tailless amphibians
Long-legged slender toad (Leptophryne borbonica), photo photo tailless amphibians

Long-legged slender toad (Leptophryne borbonica). © Photo MA Muin Md. Akil

Among the true toads, about 250 species belong to the genus Bufo; they are common on all continents except Australia. In the CIS, two types are more common. The gray toad, Bufo bufo, which reaches a length of 20 cm, lives in forest and steppe regions, and the smaller green toad, Bufo viridis, is found in deciduous forests and steppes, penetrates into the mountains to a height of 4.5 km and even in the desert, where it lives mainly in burrows of rodents; for reproduction uses temporary reservoirs, in especially hot and dry years, apparently, is able to go into summer hibernation. All toads have large parotid venom glands behind the eyes on the dorsal side of the head - parotids, and along the entire back there are many small glands. The secretion of these glands, irritating the mucous membrane, forces the predator who seizes the toad to spit it out. The South American toad, aha - Bufo marinus, which reaches 25 cm in length, has so much poison power,that a dog that seizes a toad dies quickly. Locals used the venom of these toads to make poison arrows.

Red toad (Schismaderma carens), photo amphibian
Red toad (Schismaderma carens), photo amphibian

Red Toad (Schismaderma carens)

Systematics of the family Real toads (Bufonidae):

  • Genus: Adenomus =
  • Genus: Altiphrynoides =
  • Genus: Amazophrynella =
  • Genus: Amietophrynus =
  • Genus: Anaxyrus Tschudi, 1845 = American Toads

    Species: Anaxyrus americanus Holbrook, 1836 = American Toad

  • Genus: Andinophryne =
  • Genus: Ansonia Stoliczka = Anzonia
  • Genus: Atelopus Duméril et Bibron, 1841 = Atelopes, Harlequins
  • Genus: Bufo Laurenti, 1768 = Toads

    • Species: Bufo bufo Linnaeus, 1758 = Common toad, or gray
    • Species: Bufo calamita Laur., 1768 = Reed toad
    • Species: Bufo danatensis Pisanetz, 1978 = Danatinian toad, or Central Asian toad
    • Species: Bufo galeatus = Vietnamese mountain toad
    • Species: Bufo gargarizans Cantor, 1842 = Far Eastern Toad
    • Species: Bufo paracnemis = Rococo Toad
    • Species: Bufo periglenes Sawage, 1967 = Orange toad, or Costa Rican
    • Species: Bufo raddei Str., 1876 = Mongolian Toad
    • Species: Bufo shaartusiensis Pisanets, Mezhzherin & Shcherbak, 1996 = Tajik toad
    • Species: Bufo stejnegeri Schmidt, 1931 = Steineger's Toad
    • Species: Bufo tibetanus Zarevskij, 1926 = Tibetan Toad
    • Species: Bufo verrucosissimus Pallas, 1814 = Caucasian Toad
    • Species: Bufo viridis Laur., 1768 = Green Toad
  • Genus: Bufoides Pillai et Yazdani = Rock Toads
  • Genus: Capensibufo Grandison = Cape Toads
  • Genus: Churamiti =
  • Genus: Crepidophryne Cope = Costa Rican Toads
  • Genus: Dendrophryniscus Jiménez de la Espada = Woody Harlequins
  • Genus: Didynamipus Andersson = Four-toed toads
  • Genus: Duttaphrynus Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, =

    Species: Duttaphrynus melanostictus Schneider, 1799 = Malay Toad, or Black Cicatricial Toad

  • Genus: Epidalea =
  • Genus: Frostius =
  • Genus: Ghatophryne =
  • Genus: Incilius =
  • Genus: Ingerophrynus =
  • Genus: Laurentophryne Tihen = Laurent Toads
  • Genus: Leptophryne Fitzinger = Thin-bodied Toads
  • Genus: Melanophryniscus Gallardo = Blackbacks
  • Genus: Mertensophryne Tihen = Mertens toads
  • Genus: Metaphryniscus =
  • Genus: Nannophryne =
  • Genus: Nectophryne Buchholz et W. Peters = Climbing Toads
  • Genus: Nectophrynoides Noble, 1926 = Viviparous Toads
  • Genus: Nimbaphrynoides =
  • Genus: Oreophrynella Boulenger = Guiana Harlequins
  • Genus: Osornophryne Ruíz-Carranza = Obese Harlequins
  • Genus: Parapelophryne =
  • Genus: Pedostibes Günther = Tree Toads
  • Genus: Pelophryne Barbour = Toads
  • Genus: Peltophryne Fitzinger = Caribbean Toads
  • Genus: Phrynoidis =
  • Genus: Poyntonophrynus =
  • Genus: Pseudepidalea =

    Species: Pseudepidalea pewzowi Bedriaga, 1898 = Pevtsov's Toad

  • Genus: Pseudobufo Tschudi = Water Toads
  • Genus: Rhaebo =
  • Genus: Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826 = Beaked Toads

    • Species: Rhinella marina Linnaeus, 1758 = Toad-aha, or aha
    • Species: Rhinella schneideri Werner, 1894 = Schneider's Toad, Rococo Toad
  • Genus: Schismaderma A.Smith = Red Toads
  • Genus: Truebella =
  • Genus: Vandijkophrynus =
  • Genus: Werneria Poche = Verneria
  • Genus: Wolterstorffina Mertens = Wolterstorff Toad
  • Genus: Xanthophryne =

Literature:

1. Keys to amphibians and reptiles of the fauna of the USSR. Textbook. manual for students of biol. specialties ped. in-tov. M., "Education", 1977.415 p. with ill.; 16 l. silt

2. I. M. Oliger. A short guide to vertebrates. Moscow, 1955

3. N. P. Naumov, N. N. Kartashev. Zoology of vertebrates. Inferior chordates, jawless, fish, amphibians. Moscow "High School", 1979

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