Real Salamanders (Salamandridae)

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Real Salamanders (Salamandridae)
Real Salamanders (Salamandridae)

Video: Real Salamanders (Salamandridae)

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: See a Salamander Grow From a Single Cell in this Incredible Time-lapse | Short Film Showcase 2023, January
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The family of real salamanders - Salamandridae unites about 40 species. Posterior-concave vertebrae (opisthocoelous); in adults, the lungs function, the external gills are reduced, the gill slits are overgrown; fertilization is internal. They are characterized by the presence of teeth on the upper and lower jaws, well-developed eyelids. Length 10-25 cm.

Pyrenean newt (Calotriton asper), photo photograph tailed amphibians
Pyrenean newt (Calotriton asper), photo photograph tailed amphibians

Pyrenean newt (Calotriton asper). Photo © Budi Rebollo Fernandez

Distributed in Europe, Asia, North Africa and North America. The length is 10-25 cm. Many salamanders (fire - Salamandra salamandra, black - Salamandra atra, etc.) live along the banks of mountain streams and wet mountain forests; many species are ovoviviparous or viviparous. Newts (common - Triturus vulgaris, comb - Triturus cristatus, etc.) spend most of the period of activity in water bodies, and winter on land.

Fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), photo photograph tailed amphibians
Fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), photo photograph tailed amphibians

Fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra)

Reproduction of salamanders is not fully understood. It is known that internal fertilization can occur both in water and on land. On land, the female and the male entwine each other, approach each other by cloaca, and the spermatophore enters the spermatheca of the female, located in the anterior-upper part of the cloaca, where spermatozoa can be stored for a long time. In the water, the male lays a spermatophore, which the female captures by the cloaca. Mating terms are very extended and, obviously, occur during the entire period of activity, from spring to autumn.

Fertilized eggs develop in the lower parts of the female's oviducts until the stage of hatching of larvae, which takes about 10 months, so that from eggs fertilized this year, larvae hatch the next year. At the same time, both fully formed larvae and eggs at different stages of development can be in the oviducts of the female.

Lusitanian salamander (Chioglossa lusitanica), photo photograph tailed amphibians
Lusitanian salamander (Chioglossa lusitanica), photo photograph tailed amphibians

Lusitanian salamander (Chioglossa lusitanica)

Salamanders become sexually mature at 3-4 years of age

Life expectancy is quite long, since they have few enemies thanks to the poisonous secretions of the skin glands. In the wild there are salamanders of 8-9 years of age. There are cases when salamanders lived in a terrarium for 15-18 years.

There are 7 species in the fauna of the CIS, united into 3 genera.

Himalayan newt (Tylototriton verrucosus), photo photograph tailed amphibians
Himalayan newt (Tylototriton verrucosus), photo photograph tailed amphibians

Himalayan newt (Tylototriton verrucosus)

Taxonomy of the family Real salamanders (Salamandridae):

  • Subfamily: Pleurodelinae Tschudi, 1838 =

    • Tribe: Molgini =

      • Subtribe: Molgina =

        • Genus: Calotriton =
        • Genus: Carpathotriton =
        • Genus: Cynops Tschudi = East Asian newts
        • Genus: Euproctus Gene = Mountain Newts
        • Genus: Hypselotriton =
        • Genus: Ichthyosaura Latreille, 1801 = Middle Newts

          Species: Ichthyosaura alpestris Laurenti, 1768 = Alpine newt

        • Genus: Koalliella =
        • Genus: Laotriton =
        • Genus: Lissotriton Bell, 1839 = Small, or smooth newts

          • Species: Lissotriton montandoni Boul., 1880 = Carpathian Triton
          • Species: Lissotriton vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 = Common newt
        • Genus: Neurergus Cope = Central Asian newts
        • Genus: Oligosemia =
        • Genus: Ommatotriton =
        • Genus: Pachytriton Boulenger = Short-legged newts
        • Genus: Paramesotriton M. Chang, 1935 = Warty newts, Chinese salamanders, paramesotritons
        • Genus: Procynops =
        • Genus: Triturus Rafinesque, 1815 = Tritons

          • Species: Triturus cristatus Laur., 1786 = Crested newt
          • Species: Triturus dobrogicus Kiritzescu, 1903 = Danube newt
          • Species: Triturus italicus = Italian Triton, or South Italian
          • Species: Triturus karelinii Strauch, 1870 = Karelin's newt
          • Species: Triturus vittatus Jen., 1835 = Triton Asia Minor
      • Subtribe: Tarichina =

        • Genus: Notophthalmus Rafinesque = East American newts
        • Genus: Taricha Gray = West American Newts
    • Tribe: Pleurodelini =

      • Genus: Brachycormus =
      • Genus: Chelotriton =
      • Genus: Echinotriton =
      • Genus: Palaeopleurodeles =
      • Genus: Pleurodeles Michahelles = Ribbed Newts

        Pleurodeles waltl Michahelles, 1830 = Ribbed newt

      • Genus: Tylototriton Anderson, 1871 = Crocodile newts
  • Subfamily: Salamandrinae Goldfuss, 1820 =

    • Tribe: Chioglossini =

      • Genus: Chioglossa Bocage, 1864 = Lusitanian Salamanders
      • Genus: Mertensiella Wolterstorff, 1925 = Long-tailed Salamanders

        Species: Mertensiella caucasica Waga, 1876 = Caucasian Salamander

    • Tribe: Salamandrini =

      • Genus: Lyciasalamandra =
      • Genus: Megalotriton =
      • Genus: Salamandra Laur., 1768 = Salamanders

        Species: Salamandra salamandra Linnaeus, 1758 = Spotted salamander, or fire

  • Subfamily: Salamandrininae Fitzinger, 1843 =

    • Genus: Archaeotriton =
    • Genus: Salamandrina Fitzinger = Spectacled Salamanders

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