Catfish (Siluriformes)

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Catfish (Siluriformes)
Catfish (Siluriformes)

Video: Catfish (Siluriformes)

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Video: Catfish (Siluriformes) ESK TV 2023, January
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Catfish are very similar in structure to carps. More than 2,200 species of catfish are grouped into 33 families that vary greatly in appearance, size and lifestyle. There are many species in the tropics, they do not exceed 3-6 cm in length, but there are also such giants as the common catfish Silurus glanis in our rivers, reaching a mass of 300 kg with a length of 3-4 m. Due to the presence of skin respiration and additional respiratory organs (outgrowths of the branchial cavities, intestines, etc.), many catfish are not demanding on the oxygen regime. Catfish usually lead a benthic lifestyle, becoming noticeably more active in the evening and at night.

Amphilius jacksonii (Amphilius jacksonii), photo photograph of fish
Amphilius jacksonii (Amphilius jacksonii), photo photograph of fish

Amphilius jackson (Amphilius jacksonii)

The body is elongated, naked; in a few species, bone plates are scattered in the skin. The mouth is non-retractable. The jaws have several rows of small teeth. On the front of the head there are 3-4 pairs of antennae (the first pair in the upper jaw, the second in the posterior nostrils and 2 pairs in the lower jaw), which play a very important role in obtaining food. Almost all species are characterized by a “catfish” body shape: a wide, slightly flattened head with a wide mouth, a short, roll-shaped body, and a laterally flattened caudal peduncle trimmed from below with a long anal fin.

Arius Zimana (Ariopsis seemanni), photo photograph of fish
Arius Zimana (Ariopsis seemanni), photo photograph of fish

Arius Zimana (Ariopsis seemanni)

In the pectoral fin, the outer ray is transformed into a spine, serrated along the inner edge. The dorsal fin is small, without a spine and located in the front of the back. Many have an adipose fin. The anal fin is longer than or equal to the adipose fin, and has at least 15 branched rays. Pelvic fins with 1 unbranched and 5 branched rays. The mucus covering the body and fins is poisonous. The branchial membranes are loose, not fused together or backward, and fused. The swim bladder is large. There is a Weber apparatus.

Striped tracheloperichthys (Trachelyopterichthys taeniatus), photo photograph of fish
Striped tracheloperichthys (Trachelyopterichthys taeniatus), photo photograph of fish

Striped tracheloperichthys (Trachelyopterichthys taeniatus)

Some tropical species, when water bodies dry up, are able to crawl into neighboring ones or survive a drought, burrowing in silt (they survive if the silt retains moisture; they die when completely dry). Some species have electrical organs. In the electric catfish Matapterurus electricus (rivers of West Africa), reaching 1 m in length, an electric organ, apparently representing the transformation of the skin glands, and not the muscles, like in other fish, surrounds the entire body with a gelatinous layer and reaches 1/4 of the mass of the fish. It can generate discharges with voltages up to 350-400 V.

Striped mystus (Mystus vittatus), photo photograph of fish
Striped mystus (Mystus vittatus), photo photograph of fish

Striped mystus (Mystus vittatus)

Catfish are predominantly predators that look for prey in a shelter; other species eat benthic animals; finally, there are the typical plankton-eaters. The common catfish eats various fish and frogs; large catfish grab waterfowl.

Julie's corridor (Corydoras julii), photo photograph of fish
Julie's corridor (Corydoras julii), photo photograph of fish

Julie's corridor (Corydoras julii)

Several small, up to 6 cm long American catfish are real parasites: Stegophilus attaches to the gills of large fish with a special suction disc and sucks blood; Vandettia gnaws at the skin or gills of the fish with its teeth, and the sharp spines on the gill covers allow them to stay in the wound. West African synodonts use bioelectric impulses to communicate with each other, and armored catfish can, relying on thorny rays, move from one reservoir to another; with the help of suction cups, some catfish are held in a fast current.

For many, caring for offspring is characteristic. Some of the species at the bottom of the reservoir dig minks or arrange a primitive nest, and the males guard the eggs. Males of some species carry fertilized eggs in their mouths.

Agamiks white-spotted (Agamyxis pectinifrons), photo photograph of fish
Agamiks white-spotted (Agamyxis pectinifrons), photo photograph of fish

Agamiks white-spotted (Agamyxis pectinifrons)

Catfish are widespread in fresh water bodies of tropical and subtropical parts of South and Central America, Asia, Africa; only two species migrated to the sea. Many species of catfish are of commercial importance. Representatives of three families are found in the waters of Russia, and in the Amur basin there are two genera. The rivers and lakes of South America alone are home to at least 1200 species. Common catfish are successfully bred in pond farms.

Known from the Paleocene. Of the currently living fish, the diploma catfish of the Argentine-Chilean region are considered to be the oldest. At least 800 species are cultivated in captivity. Catfish ripen in 1-3 years. Fertility is from 50 to 50 thousand eggs and more. Small catfish live up to 5 years, large - up to 25 years.

American catfish, or dwarf catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus), photo photograph of fish
American catfish, or dwarf catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus), photo photograph of fish

American catfish (Ameiurus nebulosus)

Systematics Somoobraznye detachment, or soma

Family: Aspredinidae A. Adams, 1854 = Aspredovye, or broad-headed catfish

genus: Bunocephalus Kner, 1855 = Bunofetsaly

View: Bunocephalus kneri = Bunotsefal Kner

Family: Bagridae Bleeker, 1858 = bagridae soma, or orca

Genus: leiocassis Bleeker, 1858 = Asian orca

View: leiocassis braschnikowi Berg, 1907 = orca Brazhnikova or blue

Gender: Mystus Gronovius, 1763 = Indian killer whales, or mystae

View: Mystus mica Gromov, 1970 = orca-baby

View: Mystus tengara = Tenggara

Rod: Pseudobagrus Bleeker, 1862 = Squeaky killer whales

Species: Pseudobagrus fulvidraco Richardson, 1846 = Squeaking killer whale

Genus: Pseudomystus =

View: Pseudomystus siamensis = Siamese orca

Family: Callichthyidae Bonaparte, 1838 = gar soma kallihtovye, billfish

Occupation: Callichthys = callichthys callichthys

View: Callichthys callichthys = callichthys callichthys

Occupation: Dianema = dianema

View: Dianema longibarbis = dianema bronze

Rod: Megalechis Reis, 1997 = Megalechis

Species: Megalechis thoracata Valenciennes, 1840 = Hoplosternum ordinary, or torakatum

Subfamily: Corydoradinae =

Genus: Corydoras =

Species: Corydoras aeneus = Golden

catfish

Species: Corydoras leopardus = Leopard catfish Common catfish species: Corydoras

aeneus Bleeker, 1862 =

Subfamily: Claroteinae =

Rod: Gephyroglanis =

Type: Gephyroglanis longipinnis = Aluminum catfish

family: Doradidae Bleeker, 1858 = doradidae, bokocheshuynikovye catfish

genus: Amblydoras = Amblidory

View: Amblydoras hancocki = Amblidoras Hancock

Occupation: Platydoras = Platidory

View: Platydoras costatus = Striped platydoras

Family: Ictaluridae TN Gill, 1861 = ictaluridae, cat catfish north American catfish

family: pimelodidae CH Eigenmann & RS Eigenmann, 1918 = pimelodidae, Flathead catfish

genus: Sorubim = flatheads-sorubimy

View: Sorubim lima = Sorubium paddlefish, platypus catfish, paddlefish catfish

family: Pseudopimelodidae Lundberg, Bornbusch & Mago-Leccia, 1991 =

Genus: Microglanis = South American catfish

Species: Microglanis poecilus = Zebra microglanis

Family: Siluridae G. Cuvier, 1816 = Catfish, or common catfish

Genus: Kryptopterus = Indian glass catfish

Species: Kryptopterus bicirrhis = Bagari som Som

Sisoridae 1911, or mountain catfish

Subfamily: Sisorinae Bleeker, 1858 = Sizorins

Genus: Gagata = Eiders

Species: Gagata cenia = Indian cenia, or Bengal jet

and other families

Literature:

1. N. P. Naumov, N. N. Kartashev. Zoology of vertebrates. Inferior chordates, jawless, fish, amphibians. Moscow "Higher School", 1979

2. L. S. Berg. Fish of fresh waters of the USSR and neighboring countries. Part 2. Edition 4. Moscow, 1949

3. Rybakov OE Exotic aquarium fish. Illustrated Encyclopedia. In 2 volumes. - St. Petersburg: Radar Publishing House, 1994

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