Perchfish (Perciformes)

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Perchfish (Perciformes)
Perchfish (Perciformes)

Video: Perchfish (Perciformes)

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: PERCIFORMES GROUP 2023, February
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Perchiformes are the most extensive order of fish, including at least 150 families, grouped into 20-21 suborders. This order contains over 6,000 species of fish, distributed in the most diverse reservoirs of our planet.

Aulonocara stuartgranti, photo photograph aquarium fish
Aulonocara stuartgranti, photo photograph aquarium fish

Aulonocara stuartgranti

The fins, especially the dorsal, have sharp (spiny) fin rays. Pelvic fins under or in front of the pectorals; sometimes merge to form a suction cup. Scales are often ctenoid, in some families it is reduced. The swim bladder is closed, in some it is absent. This is the largest order of bony fish, uniting over 6500 species, distributed in 140-160 families and 20 suborders. Representatives of the detachment are found in fresh and sea waters; the diversity of species is especially great in the tropics. Dimensionsvary from 1–2 cm in length and weight 10–30 mg (some gobies, schindleria, etc.) to 1–2 m and weight 100 kg or more; some species reach even larger sizes: swordfish - Xiphias gladius is up to 4-4.5 m long and weighing 400-500 kg, Atlantic blue marlin - Makaira nigricans - up to 5 m and 700-900 kg, bluefin tuna - Thunnus thynnus over 3 m and 375 kg.

Blue surgeon, or flag surgeon (Paracanthurus hepatus), photo photograph of reef fish
Blue surgeon, or flag surgeon (Paracanthurus hepatus), photo photograph of reef fish

Blue surgeon (Paracanthurus hepatus)

The variety and way of life are just as great. Tuna, horse mackerel, sailboats, swordfish lead a pelagic lifestyle, feed on schooling fish and are sometimes capable of speeds up to 100-130 km / h. Other pelagic forms (for example, notothenia) feed on planktonic crustaceans and swim slowly. Perch, pike perch, reef perch lie in wait for prey, hiding among the algae, or looking for it, swimming at low speeds. Catfish are benthic, feeding mainly on molluscs and echinoderms; their powerful periodically changing teeth easily gnaw through strong shells.

Orange-spotted snakehead (Channa aurantimaculata), photo photograph perch-like fish
Orange-spotted snakehead (Channa aurantimaculata), photo photograph perch-like fish

Orange-spotted snakehead (Channa aurantimaculata)

Sultans feeding on soft bottom invertebrates find prey with the help of long antennae, slowly swimming at the bottom. Many gobies and blend dogs hide between stones, trapping prey, and stargazers burrow into the ground, exposing only a large mouth and eyes located at the top of the head to the surface. Some blend dogs, labyrinth fish (such as pineapple and mudskippers) crawl ashore and hunt terrestrial invertebrates.

Royal gram (Gramma loreto), photo photography reef fish
Royal gram (Gramma loreto), photo photography reef fish

Royal gram (Gramma loreto)

Sprayers, widespread in the waters of Southeast Asia, shoot down insects flying or crawling on emerging plants with a series of drops or a thin stream of water sprayed at a distance of 2-2.5 m. Deep-sea species are predators, capable of swallowing prey that exceeds their size (for example, chiasmod). There are also herbivorous species (some blend dogs, surgeon fish, etc.).

Red-striped mastacembelus (Mastacembelus erythrotaenia), photo photograph perch-like fish
Red-striped mastacembelus (Mastacembelus erythrotaenia), photo photograph perch-like fish

Red-striped Mastacembelus (Mastacembelus erythrotaenia)

In seven species of the suborder Echeneoidei, the first dorsal fin shifted to the head and turned into a powerful sucker, with which adhesions reaching 30-90 cm in length attach to large fish (sometimes to boats and ships) and so move over considerable distances. They feed on food remains of the "hosts" and invertebrates, both pelagic and ectoparasites of the "host". The ability to "stick" is manifested in juveniles that have reached a length of 4-8 cm.

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Comb-toothed exsen (Ecsenius dentex), photo photograph of a fish
Comb-toothed exsen (Ecsenius dentex), photo photograph of a fish

Comb-toothed exsen (Ecsenius dentex)

The color is varied, often patronizing, with bright spots and stripes. Some are able to change color depending on the surrounding background (gobies). In some species, care for the offspring is expressed.

Marble gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus), photo photography aquarium fish
Marble gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus), photo photography aquarium fish

Marble gourami (Trichogaster trichopterus)

Gobies lay eggs in empty shells cleaned of dirt or in nests built from pebbles, others dig minks, build nests from air bubbles (labyrinth fish). The laid eggs are guarded by the male; sometimes he also protects juveniles for some time. Many cichlids carry eggs in the mouth; in some species, with a certain position of the parent, signaling the danger, the fry hide in his mouth; in different species this concern is shown either by both partners, or only by the male or female. Ovoviviparous species (eelpouts, live bearers, etc.) are also found in different suborders.

Blue-striped plagiotremus (Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos), photo photograph perches
Blue-striped plagiotremus (Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos), photo photograph perches

Blue-striped plagiotremus (Plagiotremus rhinorhynchos)

Many species of perchiformes are of great commercial importance. For our freshwater bodies, it is worth mentioning the zander - Lucioperca lucioperca and the perch - Perca fluviatilis. In the tropics, tilapia - Tilapia sp. Of the marine perches, the salmon - Sciaenidae, horse mackerel - Carangidae, notothenium - Nototheniidae, catfish - Anarhichadidae, goby - Gobiidae, mackerel - Scombridae (mackerel, bonito, mackerel, tuna - swords), swordfish), etc. Many species of brightly colored small perches are kept in aquariums (macropods, cockerels, gourami, scalars, etc.).

Rainbow cichlazoma (Paraneetroplus synspilus), photo photography aquarium fish
Rainbow cichlazoma (Paraneetroplus synspilus), photo photography aquarium fish

Rainbow cichlazoma (Paraneetroplus synspilus)

Systematics detachment Perciformes:

Family: Acanthoclinidae = Akantoklinovye

Family: Acanthuridae = surgeonfish

genus: Naso Lacépède = True Nosach (Fish unicorns)

Family: Amarsipidae Haedrich = Amarsipovye

Family: Ambassiidae = Glass perches

Genus: Chanda Hamilton-Buchanan = Chanda

View: Chanda ranga = Perch glass

family: Anarhichantidae Gill = anarhichadidae

family: Belontiidae = Labyrinth

family: Blenniidae Rafinesque = combtooth blenny

Occupation: Blennius = blennies

View: Blennius ocellaris Linne = butterfly blenny

View: Blennius pavo Risso = blennies peacock

Type: Blennius Blennius sanguinolentus Pallas = Bleach

Species: Blennius sphinx Valenciennes = Sphynx

Bleach Dog Species: Blennius tentacularis Brannich. = Blennies dlinnoschupaltsevaya

View: Blennius zvonimiri Kolombatovic = blennies Zvonimir

Occupation: Coryphoblennius Norman = Crested blennies

View: Coryphoblennius galerita Linne = Crested blennies

Family: Carangidae Rafinesque = carangidae

Family: Callionimidae = Adjustment knob, or sea mouse, or peskarkovye

Rod: Callionymus = Gudgeon

Species: Callionymus belenus Risso = Small sea mouse

Species: Callionymus festivus Pallas = Sea mouse, or gudgeon

Species: Callionymus lyra Linne = Lyre sea mouse

Family: Centracanthidae = Smaridae

Family: Centrarchidae = centrarchidae, bluegill

Occupation: Elassoma Jordan = Elassomy

View: Elassoma evergladei = Elassoma

Occupation: Mesogonistius Gill = Mezogonisty, discoid perches

View: Enneacanthus [Mesogonistius] chaetodon = discoid perch sheybenbarsh

genus: Lepomis Rafinesque = True Dory, sunfish

View: Lepomis gibbosus = Sunny perch

family: Centrolophidae = Tsentrolofovye

family: Centropomidae Poey = Robalovye

family: Cepolidae = Tsepolovye, lentotelye

family: Channidae [Ophiocephalidae] = snakehead

family: Cichlidae Bleeker = Cichlids, cichlidae

family: Cirrhitidae = Kudreperye

Family: Glaucosomatidae = Glaukosomovye, sinetelkovye [Pearl] perches

Family: Gobiidae Bonaparte = Goby

Occupation: Stigmatogobius = Stigmatogobius

View: Stigmatogobius sadanundio = Steer spotted

family: Grammatidae = gram

family: Mastacembelidae Günther = Hobotnorylye

Occupation: Macrognathus Lacépède = Toothed hobotnoryly

View: Macrognathus aculeatus = Macrognatus narrow-eyed

Family: Menidae Gill = Barter

family: Mullidae = Barabule, sultanaceae

Family: Pentacerotidae = Boar, wild boar

Family: Pomatomidae = Bluefishes

Family: Scaridae = Scarce, parrotfish

Family: Diplodus Sparidae

Family: Diplodus Sparidae crucian carp

View: Diplodus sargus = Redfin, or laskir

Occupation: Boops = Boopsy

View: Boops boops Linne = Boops bigeye

View: Boops salpa Linne = Salpa

Family: Scombridae Rafinesque = bonito

family: Toxotidae = Bryzgunova

Occupation: Toxotes Cuvier = Bryzgunov

View: Toholes jaculator = Toksotes, fish Bryzgunov

family: Trachinidae = Sea dragons, draconian

family: Trichiuridae Rafinesque = cutlassfish, scabbard fish

family: Xiphiidae Gill = Mecherylye, swordfish

family: Zoarcidae Cuvier = viviparous

family: Ammodytidae Bonaparte = gerbil

family: Pomacentridae = Pomacentral

Genus: Amphiprion Bloch et Schneider = Amphiprion, clownfish

Species: Amphiprion percula = Amphiprion-clown

Genus: Chromis =

Species: Chromis chromis Linne = Swallow, or monk, or nun

Family: Labridae, Cuvier = Gubanidae

Genus: Coris = Marine junkers, Coris

Species: Coris julis Linnaeus, 1758 = Marine junker

Genus: Crenilabrus = Greenfinches

Species: Crenilabrus griseus Linne =

Grouse Species: Crenilabrus ocellatus Forskal = Rulen or ocellated wrasse

Species: Crenilabrus quinquemaculatus Bloch = Quail, or spotted wrasse

Species: Crenilabrus tinea Linne, many others Greenfinches, paws families

Literature:

1. N. P. Naumov, N. N. Kartashev. Zoology of vertebrates. Inferior chordates, jawless, fish, amphibians. Moscow "High School", 1979

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