Video: Cryptorchidism In Cats
For breeding, you can only use those cats in which both testicles are present in the scrotum. Non-castrated males, in which both testicles are missing in the scrotum, are called bilateral (bilateral) cryptorchids. If one testis is present, then such an animal is considered a unilateral cryptorchid. The term "cryptorchidism" means "hidden testis". Unilateral cryptorchidism is much more common than bilateral.
The owners of such animals are often interested in: "How long can you wait for the testis to descend?" In newborn kittens, the testes are very small, soft, they can freely move from the scrotum to the inguinal canal and back, especially when the kitten is in a stressful situation. It is recommended to wait up to 6 months of age before finally confirming cryptorchidism.
There is no information yet available to support the hereditary nature of cryptorchidism in cats. Some doctors claim that cryptorchidism in cats is a hereditary pathology, since it is found in other pets. Sperm production in unilateral cryptorchids is possible, whereas bilateral cryptorchids are usually sterile.For the formation of normal sperm, the testes must be in the scrotum, where the temperature is 4-5 degrees below body temperature. Therefore, a one-sided cryptorch cat can fertilize a cat during estrus. Cryptorchidism does not affect testosterone production. Therefore, most cryptorchids exhibit sexual activity and erection. Non-descended testes are relatively small, and histological examination reveals a 60% decrease in the diameter of the vas deferens compared to normal testes. In cryptorchid cats, testosterone is produced in sufficient quantities to maintain typical secondary sexual characteristics, including characteristic behaviors (urinary marks, aggressiveness, pungent urine odor).
In cats, the probability of cryptorchidism is estimated at 0.37-1.7%.
Диагностика крипторхизма. Требуется визуальный осмотр и внимательная пальпация мошонки и области паховых каналов. Как всегда, мошоночный жир и паховые лимфоузлы могут имитировать не опустившийся семенник. Семенники, находящиеся в брюшной полости трудно идентифицировать пальпацией, в таких случаях их визуализируют с помощью УЗИ. Рекомендуется использование теста стимуляции человеческим хорионическим гонадотропином или гонадотропин-рилизинг гормоном для индуцирования определяемого подъема уровня тестостерона в крови. Можно использовать и коровий гонадотропин-рилизинг гормон. Стандартный протокол этого теста: измерение уровня тестостерона до и через 60 мин после инъекции гонадотропин-рилизинг гормона (2 мкг/кг). Повышенный уровень тестостерона во второй пробе свидетельствует о наличии крипторхизма.
Cryptorchid cats have an excellent diagnostic procedure - examination of the penis for the presence of "thorns". These testosterone-dependent spines atrophy within 6 weeks of castration.
Cryptorchidism treatment. Castration is the treatment of choice for cryptorchidism.
Twisting of the spermatic cord of the testis in the abdominal cavity may occur. Although very rare, it can cause severe abdominal pain and other complications. Prompt access to a non-descended testis depends on its location. It is easy to locate the testis by looking at the seed tube. Laparoscopy can be used to remove non-descended testes.
The most common treatment, apart from acupuncture and herbal medicine, is the use of drugs that improve the activity of luteotropic hormone, such as choriogonadotropin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone, which increase the production of endogenous luteotropic hormone. Most studies report the effectiveness of hormone therapy compared to control groups of cryptorchids. Control of cryptorchidism is complicated by the need to exclude the cryptorchids themselves from breeding and, preferably, their mothers and sisters.
Cases of cryptorchidism in cats. A 4-year-old domestic long-haired cat was examined for aggressive behavior and urinary tags. He was already examined at the age of 3, 6 and 12 months - 1 testis was found in the scrotum. At the age of one year, the right testis was removed from the scrotum, the left testis was not found either in the scrotum or in the abdominal cavity. The cat developed with all sexual characteristics and a year later another laparotomy was undertaken: the left testis could not be found. The cat continued to demonstrate sexual behavior: leaving marks, screaming and was aggressive.
As before, palpation and ultrasound did not reveal the left testis in the scrotum or in the inguinal canal. At the same time, the cat's penis was well developed, there were characteristic thorns that were absent in castrated males.
This was clear confirmation of the normal formation of testosterone. The cat did not allow himself to be picked up. A control blood sample was taken, and then the cat was injected intravenously with 500 IU of choriogonadotropin. Blood was taken again 30 minutes later and 2 hours after injection. Testosterone levels were 0.68, 5.0 and 10.5 ng / ml, respectively (control / 30 min / 2 hours).
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A midline laparotomy was performed under general anesthesia. The left vas deferens was identified at the outlet of the prostate. It was found that the vas deferens was directed through the inguinal ring caudally into the subcutaneous tissues under the pubic bones. The left testis was located on the anterior surface of the symphysis pubis. Histological examination of the testis revealed a violation of spermatogenesis: the vas deferens were straightened, although they contained Sertoli cells, were subject to diffuse interstitial (Leydig cells) hyperplasia.
The test with hCG was repeated 6 weeks after the operation. Testosterone was not detected in any of the blood samples. Within a few weeks after the surgery, the cat's behavior improved (with respect to urinary traces, crying and aggression), as reported by the owners.
Output. The choriogonadotropin stimulation test is a valuable diagnostic technique for detecting a non-descended testis. The diagnostic operation made it possible to find the testis along the vas deferens. In this case, initial attempts were unsuccessful, since the testis could not be detected by palpation either subcutaneously or abdominally. The most important in practical terms in such cases is to find the vas deferens and identify the testis that has not descended.
M. Memon, A. Tibary (translated from English by V. Kuznetsov), Ural Association of Practicing Veterinary Physicians