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Video: What Is Intelligence? (part 7)
Humans evaluate the mental development of animals by comparing it to their own. If an animal has good eyesight and dexterous limbs, then, as a rule, it is considered smarter than its fellows. We give preference to those representatives of the animal kingdom who can see, react and manipulate objects like ourselves.
Animals that benefit humans are also considered to have higher intelligence than their less-needed brethren. And not the lack of intelligence in animals is to blame for this, but the narrow thinking of people. Animals that rely only on their instincts learn only what is directly related to their environment. To adapt to changing conditions, they need a long evolutionary process.
Animals with broader cognitive abilities adapt to changing living conditions much faster. Cats are one such species. They have the ability to find solutions to problems outside their ecological niche, they can quickly adapt to unexpected changes in life. A clear manifestation of these abilities is seen when a spoiled pet becomes a feral predator during just one life or, at most, several generations, and vice versa. Unfortunately, there is no scale that can help measure these abilities in animals.
To determine the level of their intelligence, people usually use the so-called IQ - intelligence quotient. You should not rely on it 100%, as there are various systems for assessing it and, in addition, you can find out in advance how to show a good result. There are people who show a low result, despite all their intellectual abilities, since the test requires a certain type of thinking, namely, logical thinking, and does not fully reflect the mental development of a person. There are also tests that measure the ability to learn and remember. Is the ability to cram a sign of high intelligence? If so, then any bird that can imitate other people's voices should be considered very intelligent. The concept of intelligence is very multifacetedis the ability to learn and memorize various information, draw conclusions and apply the knowledge gained in a new situation.
Чтобы выжить, кошкам и собакам не нужно изучать ядерную физику или читать Шекспира. Интеллект животных связан с их естественной средой обитания и необходимостью выжить в ней. Для измерения интеллекта у животных, мы должны сначала понять, каким они воспринимают окружающий мир, и в соответствии с этим разработать тесты. Если тест призван изучать способность к научению, то, прежде всего, нужно узнать, что именно мотивирует кошку или собаку на выполнение действий. Различные взаимоотношения животных с окружающим миром предполагают различные мотивирующие факторы. Нам нужны тесты, которые позволят выявить черты поведения и склонности, свойственные животному, а не нам, людям. Также необходимо каким-то образом сравнить поведение различных особей, которое может весьма различаться.
The innate behavior of different animal species can be very different. For example, if a cat and a border collie dog (both have not been previously trained) are given free access to ducklings, then the cat will immediately eat one or more, and the dog will gather the ducklings into a flock and protect them. Is a cat smart that does not rush to protect ducklings? Is a dog stupid if it doesn't consider ducklings to be easy prey and doesn't take an opportunity to grab a bite?
Article on the topic Demotivation (part 8)
Based on this test, no animal can be considered smarter than another. Both the cat and the dog acted according to their instincts. The dog has an innate strong shepherd instinct, which for centuries has been developed in it through selection. In this test, the dog does what any Border Collie would do. A cat is a cat, and her behavior is typical of all representatives of this species: she perceives ducklings as easy prey. Thus, she does not pass the test for "the best shepherd". Therefore, this test can only be used to study herding dogs, it is in no way suitable for studying the intelligence of other animals. Its results can be interpreted in any way, and the conclusions have no practical value. Such tests are sometimes used with hidden intent by those "researchers"who are trying to statistically support their theory or prove a previously known conclusion.
People are very sensitive to the concept of "intelligence". When talking about the intelligence of animals, they use the words "intelligence" or "instinct". We humans don't want to admit that we are not the only ones with intelligence. If we turn to history, we can see that a similar thing happened in relations between people, when white-skinned people treated people with a different skin color (the so-called representatives of the lower races) as intelligent and amenable to training, but not as their brethren, possessing the same high intelligence.