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Video: Origin Of Goldfish
The ancestor of the goldfish is the Chinese carp dzi. This question remained open for a long time, but there were references to the hypothesis of authoritative ichthyologists. Previous studies, due to the low technical level, did not allow to give an exact answer on this matter. It was only at the end of the 70s of the XX century that Yoshio Azuma, senior professor at the Kansai Academy, completed the work begun by the late Professor Matsusei, an excellent connoisseur of goldfish and pearls. During his lifetime, the teacher was so devoted to work that he collected everything related to goldfish: works, literature, ancient manuscripts, works of art, and so on; these materials he collected were known as the Goldfish Library.
Carp dzi (Carassius auratus auratus). Photo © Blair Chen
Under Matsusei's leadership, already in 1942, Azuma carried out research on the genetics of freshwater fish cells and studies on the chromosomes of fish of Japanese origin. These works prompted to clarify the question of the ancestors of the goldfish. Thanks to the results of experiments in genetics and research on serology, cytology, morphology, it turned out that the goldfish is the prototype of the goldfish.
In Turoku ri ka gerui kokorodzashi (fish of the carp family in China), it is reported that there are three fish in the carp genus in China: kuroji, ginji and ji.
Goldfish (Carassius auratus)
Kuroji (black carp - Carassius carassius) and ginji (Amur goldfish - Carassius gibelio) are widespread in the northern part of China, and goldfish appeared in the south, so they cannot be progenitors. Only dZi remains. Having received 20 live dZi (Carassius auratus auratus) from China, the Institute of Zoo Research conducted a comparison with a goldfish. The number of chromosomes was the same 2n = 100. Their similarity was confirmed by the analysis of "C-band staining". After that, the number of rays of the dorsal fin, the number of gill bones and other external signs were compared, and the muscle protein was examined from a biochemical point of view. These results were found to be identical to those from goldfish studies.
Enemies and Diseases of Goldfish
Wild goldfish (Carassius gibelio) - hibuna
Among the common gray carp, there are orange individuals called hibuna.- wild goldfish, otherwise golden Chi (in ancient China it was called Dzi-Yu). A mutation has arisen from it, which differs from the wild goldfish in its curved body shape and a forked tail (King-Yu) and an amazing ability to reproduce offspring with all sorts of deformities (lack of fins, their unusual length or shape, swollen bodies, bulging eyes and other deviations). The Chinese, Koreans and Japanese, as lovers of everything original, have tried, through artificial selection, to transform these random freaks into a permanent, extremely original form. Thanks to the enormous patience and work of several generations, it was possible to consolidate the shape and color of the fish. This was achieved by feeding them with special types of food, selecting the necessary reservoirs, lighting and other methods known only to the breeders themselves.
Related article Breeding goldfish
When the various varieties of goldfish appeared, it is impossible to say for sure, but judging by the literary sources, fish with bulging eyes appeared in 1590, with a forked tail in 1596. In the same year, fish with rounded bodies appeared, in 1621 - with transparent scales, in 1634 - with a developing tail. All were still far from today's telescopes, veil-tails, oranda, and other varieties.
Since ancient times, four varieties of goldfish have been known, from which mutations have appeared, or when crossing with each other, they gave new variations. These are wakin, ranchu, demekin and ryukin. Some original variations were found in the distant past, but only their names have survived to us. And only from the middle of the 19th century, fish farming by targeted selection begins. In total, there are more than 120 varieties of goldfish.
"Aquarium. Goldfish and its varieties”. V. Mikhailov
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