Stingrays (Rajomorphii, Batoidea)

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Stingrays (Rajomorphii, Batoidea)
Stingrays (Rajomorphii, Batoidea)

Video: Stingrays (Rajomorphii, Batoidea)

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Video: Rochen-Fütterung Malediven Sun Island (Batoidea) 2023, February
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The superorder Skaty includes about a hundred species of rays of various sizes (length from 50 cm to 4.5-7 m and body width from 30 cm to 5-7 m; the mass of the largest species can reach 2 tons). Representatives of the superorder belong to the lamellibranch cartilaginous fish. A distinctive feature is that 5-6 pairs of gill slits lie on the ventral side of the body, and the spigail - on the dorsal, immediately behind the eyes. Stingrays have a relatively flat body with large pectoral fins that fuse with the head. The body is diamond-shaped or, less often, oval, and only the saw-fish in the shape of the body resembles a shark. The underside of the body of the stingray has a light shade; it has paired gills in the amount of five pieces, a mouth and nostrils. The skin is covered with small toothed enamel projections (denticles).The color of the upper part corresponds to the habitat of the stingray (varies from black to light gray). Teeth usually look like low prisms, tightly adjacent to each other and forming a powerful "grater". There is no anal fin.

Small-toothed saw, or pylon stingray (Pristis microdon), photo photograph of fish
Small-toothed saw, or pylon stingray (Pristis microdon), photo photograph of fish

Fine-toothed saw-hole, or pylon-stingray (Pristis microdon)

Tailstingray has a whip-like shape. In many species, approximately in the middle of the caudal peduncle, there is one (rarely two) long (in large species - up to 30-35 cm!) Flattened horny needle with a sharp apex and serrated edges. On the lower surface of the needle there is a groove lined with glandular cells that secrete a poisonous mucous secret. When the enemy (apparently, mainly sharks) attacks, the stingray hits him with its tail, inflicting deep lacerated wounds with a needle; a secret falling into a wound causes a sharp pain. Stalkers usually lie on a sandy or muddy bottom, half buried in the ground. If a person accidentally steps on a stingray, then he immediately begins to fight back with his tail. When even a small amount of poison gets into the wounds, in addition to the sharp pain, blood pressure drops, vomiting, muscle paralysis begins; deaths are also known.Electric rays have a special organ from a bundle of transformed muscles that produces electrical discharges to paralyze prey (for protective purposes). The characteristics of the discharges are 60-230 Volts, more than 30 Amperes.

Manta, or giant sea devil (Manta birostris), photo photograph of fish
Manta, or giant sea devil (Manta birostris), photo photograph of fish

Manta, or giant sea devil (Manta birostris)

Various types of rays, widely distributed from the subpolar to the tropical zone. Most of the species of these animals can be found exclusively in sea water, but some also live in fresh water.

They feed on echinoderms, molluscs, crustaceans. Large pelagic rays include plankton and small fish.

Interesting facts about sharks
Interesting facts about sharks

Related article Interesting facts about sharks

Taniura-limma (Taeniura lymma), photo photograph of fish
Taniura-limma (Taeniura lymma), photo photograph of fish

Taniura-limma (Taeniura lymma)

Stingrays breed by laying eggs or live birth. Stingrays in some families have special villi in the uterus (known as trophotenia) that additionally nourish the embryo. A well-known species of the Stingray superorder is the mantas, which are also known as giant sea devils. In addition, many people interested in wildlife are familiar with large species from the bracken and stingray families. Residents of Russia, Ukraine, Turkey and some other countries are more familiar with sea cats from the Azov and Black seas.

Striped stingray (Trygonorrhina fasciata), fish photo
Striped stingray (Trygonorrhina fasciata), fish photo

Striped stingray (Trygonorrhina fasciata)

Common in tropical and subtropical seas, rare in temperate latitudes. They live in shallow waters, but there are also deep-sea forms. Sedentary fish that live on the bottom or near the bottom, often burrowing partially or completely in silt or woods. They come to the mouths of the rivers. Several species of stingrays (Potamotrygon) live in the Amazon basin and in other rivers in Brazil and Paraguay.

Electric stingray, or marble gnus (Torpedo marmorata), photo photograph of fish
Electric stingray, or marble gnus (Torpedo marmorata), photo photograph of fish

Electric stingray (Torpedo marmorata)

The wings of stingrays are used as a raw material for the preparation of a delicacy in Portuguese cuisine. Recently, stingrays have been used as raw materials for the production of fishmeal. In ancient Japan, the leather of these animals was used for wrapping katana handles because of its strength and durability. In the modern world, leather is produced by bags, wallets, briefcases, belts and other leather goods. In ancient times, the special properties of electric rays were used for anesthesia in medicine.

Short-tailed gnus (Hypnos monopterygius), photo photograph of fish
Short-tailed gnus (Hypnos monopterygius), photo photograph of fish

Short-tailed gnus (Hypnos monopterygius)

Systematics of the Skata superorder:

  • Order / Order: Myliobatiformes = Tailed Beasts

    • Superfamily: Myliobatoidea =

      • Family: Gymnuridae Fowler, 1934 = Gymnuridae, butterfly rays

        • Genus: Aetoplatea = Aetoplatea
        • Genus: Gymnura van Hasselt, 1823 = Gymnurs

          • Species: Gymnura altavela Linnaeus, 1758 = Butterfly Stingray
          • Species: Gymnura bimaculata Norman, 1925 =
          • Species: Gymnura japonica Schlegel, 1850 = Japanese butterfly stingray
      • Family: Myliobatidae = Eagle rays

        • Subfamily: Mobulinae = Mantle

          • Genus: Manta Bancroft, 1829 = Manty
          • Genus: Mobula Rafinesque, 1810 = Mobula, stag
        • Subfamily: Myliobatinae =

          • Genus: Aetobatus Blainville, 1816 = Spotted Eagles
          • Genus: Aetomylaeus = Flying rays
          • Genus: Myliobatis Cuvier, 1817 = Eagles
          • Genus: Pteromylaeus = Winged Eagles
        • Subfamily: Rhinopterinae =

          Genus: Rhinoptera = Oxen

      • Family: Rhinopteridae =
    • Superfamily: Plesiobatoidea =

      • Family: Hexatrygonidae = Six-gill rays
      • Family: Plesiobatidae =
  • Order / Order: Pristiformes = Sawfish

    • Family: Pristidae Müller et Henle = Saw Rays

      • Genus: Anoxypristis White & Moy-Thomas, 1941 = Asian Saw

        Species: Anoxypristis cuspidata Latham, 1794 = Pylon stingray

      • Genus: Pristis Klein, 1776 = Saw saws

        Species: Pristis pectinata Latham, 1794 = Sawfish

  • Order / Order: Rajiformes = Ray-shaped, or rhombic

    • Superfamily: Dasyatoidea =

      • Family: Dasyatidae L. = Stingray stingrays, or stinging rays

        • Genus: Dasyatis Rafinesque, 1810 = Sea cats

          • Species: Dasyatis akajei Muller et Henle, 1841 = Red stingray
          • Species: Dasyatis americana = American stalker
          • Species: Dasyatis centroura Mitchill, 1815 = Northern spiny stingray
          • Species: Dasyatis kuhlii Muller et Henle, 1841 = Spotted stingray
          • Species: Dasyatis matsubarai Miyosi, 1939 = Matsubara stingray
          • Species: Dasyatis navarrae Steindachner, 1892 = Nessler stingray
          • Species: Dasyatis pastinaca Linnaeus, 1758 = Stingray, or sea cat
          • Species: Dasyatis sinensis Steindachner, 1892 = Chinese stingray
          • View: Dasyatis ushiei Jordan & Hubbs, 1925 =
          • Species: Dasyatis zugei Müller and Henle, 1841 = Sharp stingray
        • Genus: Himantura Müller & Henle, 1837 = Hymantura stalkers

          Species: Himantura gerrardi Gray, 1851 = Pointed stingray

        • Genus: Makararaja =
        • Genus: Neotrygon =
        • Genus: Pastinachus =
        • Genus: Pteroplatytrygon =
        • Genus: Taeniura =
        • Genus: Urogymnus =
        • Genus: Urolophoides Lindberg, 1930 = Urolophoid stingrays, stingrays

          • Species: Urolophoides giganteus Lindberg, 1930 = Giant stingray
          • Species: Urolophoides matsubarai Miyosi, 1939 = Matsubara stingray
          • Species: Urolophoides multispinosus Tokarev, 1959 = Many-spined stingray
      • Family: Potamotrygonidae Garman, 1877 = River stingrays

        • Genus: Heliotrygon =
        • Genus: Paratrygon =
        • Genus: Plesiotrygon =
        • Genus: Potamotrygon = River stalkers
      • Family: Urolophidae Müller and Henle, 1841 = Short-tailed stingrays, thick-tailed stingrays

        • Genus: Urolophus =
        • Genus: Urotrygon Müller et Henle, 1837 = Urolophi, oar-tails, stubby stingrays

          Species: Urolophus aurantiacus Muller et Henle, 1841 = Orange-red oartail

    • Superfamily: Rajoidea =

      • Family: Rajidae Bonaparte = Rhombus stingrays

        • Subfamily: Arhynchobatinae =

          • Genus: Arhynchobatis =
          • Genus: Atlantoraja =
          • Genus: Bathyraja Ishiyama, 1958 =
          • Genus: Brochiraja =
          • Genus: Irolita =
          • Genus: Notoraja =
          • Genus: Pavoraja =
          • Genus: Psammobatis =
          • Genus: Pseudoraja =
          • Genus: Rhinoraja =
          • Genus: Rioraja =
          • Genus: Sympterygia =
        • Genus: Okamejei =

          • Species: Okamejei kenojei Mullet et Henle, 1841 = Japanese stingray
          • Species: Okamejei meerdervoorti Bleeker, 1860 = Porous Ray
        • Subfamily: Rajinae =

          • Genus: Amblyraja =
          • Genus: Anacanthobatis =
          • Genus: Breviraja Bigelow et Schroeder, 1948 = Light-nosed rays
          • Genus: Cruriraja =
          • Genus: Dactylobatus =
          • Genus: Dipturus Rafinesque, 1810 =
          • Genus: Fenestraja =
          • Genus: Gurgesiella =
          • Genus: Leucoraja Malm, 1877 =
          • Genus: Malacoraja =
          • Genus: Neoraja =
          • Genus: Raja Linnaeus, 1758 = Stingrays
          • Genus: Rajella Stehmann, 1970 = Deep Sea Ray
          • Genus: Rostroraja Hulley, 1972 =
          • Genus: Sinobatis =
          • Genus: Zearaja =
    • Superfamily: Rhinobatoidea =

      • Family: Rhinobatidae Bonaparte, 1835 = Rohly rays

        • Subfamily: Platyrhininae =

          • Genus: Platyrhina Mullet et Henle, 1838 = Chinese disc rays, platyrins
          • Genus: Platyrhinoidis =
          • Genus: Zanobatus =
        • Subfamily: Rhininae =

          Genus: Rhina Bloch & Schneider, 1801 = Rokhli

        • Subfamily: Rhinobatinae =

          • Genus: Aptychotrema = Rohly rays
          • Genus: Glaucostegus = Glaucostegus
          • Genus: Rhinobatos Link, 1790 = Guitar stingrays, or guitarists
          • Genus: Tarsistes =
          • Genus: Trygonorrhina = Striped Rocky Ray
          • Genus: Zapteryx = Short-necked guitar stingrays
        • Subfamily: Rhynchobatinae =

          Genus: Rhynchobatus Mullet et Henle, 1837 = Sharp-tailed, or rhinhobats

  • Order / Order: Torpediniformes = Gnuslike, electric rays

    • Family: Hypnidae = Hypnova

      Genus: Hypnos =

    • Family: Narcinidae = Daffodils

      • Genus: Benthobatis =
      • Genus: Crassinarke =
      • Genus: Diplobatis =
      • Genus: Discopyge =
      • Genus: Narcine Henle, 1834 = Narcins

        Species: Narcine lingula Richardson, 1846 =

    • Family: Narkidae = Narc

      • Genus: Electrolux =
      • Genus: Heteronarce =
      • Genus: Narke Kaup, 1826 = Narc

        • Species: Narke dipterygia Bloch et Schneider, 1801 = Spot-tailed Narc
        • Species: Narke japonica Schlegel, 1850 = Japanese electric ray
      • Genus: Temera =
      • Genus: Typhlonarke =
    • Family: Torpedinidae Bonaparte, 1838 = Gnusic, electric rays

      • Genus: Torpedo = Electric rays

        • View: Torpedo marmorata Valenciennes = Electric marble stingray
        • View: Torpedo nobiliana Bonaparte, 1835 = Black Electric Stingray
        • View: Torpedo torpedo Linnaeus, 1758 = Electric stingray

Species: Dasyatis pastinaca Linnaeus, 1758 = Sea cat, or stingray

Literature:

1. Naumov NP, Kartashev NN Zoology of vertebrates. - Part 2. - Reptiles, birds, mammals: A textbook for a biologist. specialist. un-tov. - M.: Higher. school, 1979. - 272 p., ill.

2. Myagkov N. A. Atlas-Keys to Fish: Book. for students.- M.: Education, 1994.-282 p.: ill

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