Russian Trotter (Russian Trotting Horse)

Russian Trotter (Russian Trotting Horse)
Russian Trotter (Russian Trotting Horse)

Video: Russian Trotter (Russian Trotting Horse)

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Video: Moscow Hippodrome 2023, January
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The Russian trotter (Russian trotter), or the Russian trotting horse, is a lightly harnessed horse breed, bred in Russia and the USSR by reproductive crossing of the Orlov trotter with the American one. This is the youngest of the four trotting breeds, which received recognition in 1949. In the history of the breed, two main sharply different periods should be distinguished: from the 1890s to the October Revolution and the period of Soviet horse breeding, when, in fact, the formation of the Russian trotter took place.

Russian trotter (Russian trotting horse), photo photograph
Russian trotter (Russian trotting horse), photo photograph

The creation of the Russian trotter began in the 1900s, when the first trotters of the American (Standard Bred) breed began to be imported from the USA to Russia. Horses of the new breed made up fierce competition on the racetracks to the Oryol trotters, who were considered the most frisky until that time. American trotters began to beat Orlov at all distances. After that, since it was primarily about the huge prize money, many owners of Oryol trotters began to buy American stallions in the USA and cross them with Orlov mares.

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Oryol-American crossbreds showed very good results, and an almost total cross-breeding began. This fusion of "blue Oryol blood with the dry and tart blood of an American trotter" (in the words of A. I. Kuprin) divided Russian horse breeders and horse lovers into two camps - adherents of the Oryol trotter and mestizers. Strongman's victories over the American trotter General Eich or the half-breed mare Sorry were perceived by supporters of the Oryol breed as a national triumph, and his defeats were a real disaster.

Russian trotter (Russian trotting horse), photo photograph
Russian trotter (Russian trotting horse), photo photograph

Before the 1917 revolution, the most frisky American-Oryol crosses were such famous horses as the gray stallion Dusty (Garlo - Loss 1900), showing 2 minutes 8.4 seconds at a distance of 1600 m, the mare Sorry (Pass Rose - Mashistaya 1902), showing distances 1600 m 2 min 8 s, which became the first record holders of the Russian breed. Outstanding agility was shown by such trotters as Meteor (Zenit - Mina 1908), agility 2 min 11 s and Taglioni (Gay Bingen - Secret 1909), agility 2 min 9 s. At a distance of 3200 m Taglioni showed an absolute record of those years - 4 minutes 24.1 seconds.

After the Civil War, the surviving mestizos and some cool American trotters continued to be tested at the racetracks of the USSR. In 1928, a plan for the development of Oryol-American horse breeding was adopted. The purpose of developing a new breed was not only testing at racetracks, but also getting a horse capable of working in any kind of harness, in the countryside or in the armed forces.

Russian trotter (Russian trotting horse), photo photograph
Russian trotter (Russian trotting horse), photo photograph

In 1929, in Germany, the mestizo Cockerel competed on equal terms not only with the best trotters bred in Europe, but also with trotters from the USA. In 1933, the Cockerel became the first European trotter in the class faster than 2 min 5 s at 1600 m, showing a speed of 2 min 3.5 s in the prize at this distance.

Over the next twenty years, the stud farms of the USSR did a lot of work on the selection of stallions and mares of the desired type, training and testing them at the hippodromes, as a result of which, in 1949, the new breed was officially recognized and named the Russian trotter.

In the Russian trotting horse, horses with a pronounced riding type are quite often found. The Russian trotter is based on the largest number of Asian, European and American breeds. Akhal-Teke, Arab, Thoroughbred, Trakehner, Orlovo-Rostopchin, Holstein, Friesian, Standard Bred, French Trotter, Morgan, various Spanish, Neapolitan, Danish, German and Dutch - this is an incomplete list of breeds participating in the creation of the Russian trotter.

The first four-year-old trotter, showing a time of 2 minutes exactly at a distance of 1600 meters, was the gray stallion Hybrid (Huron - Brazil 1947). At the age of three, he showed phenomenal agility at 2400 m - 3 minutes 6.4 seconds, a record that has not yet been broken by any three-year-old trotter born in Russia.

Russian trotter (Russian trotting horse), photo photograph
Russian trotter (Russian trotting horse), photo photograph

On the exterior, the Russian trotters were inferior to the Oryol trotters in breed and elegance, but were much more harmonious than the American trotter. In terms of agility, the Russian trotters were faster than the Oryol, but quieter than the American trotters. Russian trotters have repeatedly demonstrated their agility abroad.

The Russian trotter Gesture was the first of the Russian trotters to enter the international elite of "minuteless" trotters, that is, running 1600 meters in less than 2 minutes. It was in 1953 at the Odessa Hippodrome.

A small number of stallions and mares of American trotters were imported from the USA and other countries. The most effective was the use of two imported stud stallions; Low-Hanover, born 1957, and Reprise, born 1971 Their offspring dominate the racetrack for traditional, personal and international prizes.

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Today the most playful Russian trotter is the red stallion Polygon. Speaking of the Polygon, one cannot but mention his father Pavlina - a trotter of the highest class, 20 times ahead of all-Union records under the direction of A. Kreidin.

Russian trotter (Russian trotting horse), photo photograph
Russian trotter (Russian trotting horse), photo photograph

Most of today's Russian trotters on the exterior have little in common with the Russian trotters twenty years ago. The old lines of the Russian trotting breed, leading to the crosses of the tsarist times, were irretrievably lost. Today, the Russian trotter is a sports horse, used to improve local draft horse breeds, as well as in equestrian competitions in the territory of the former USSR and abroad. In terms of agility, it is somewhat superior to the Orlov trotter, as it is more early ripening.

Height at the withers is from 154 to 165 cm. The most common color is bay (46%), black (27%), less often red and gray.

Russian trotting horses are characterized by a strong, dry constitution. Breeding stallions recorded in the 19th volume of the State Book have the following measurements, in cm: height at the withers - 160.3, braid, body length - 161.5, chest girth - 182.3, cannon girth - 20.2. The sizes of mares are 159.3 - 161.1 - 182.7 - 19.8, respectively. The live weight of horses is 500 - 550 kg.

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As a rule, the Russian trotter is a dry horse, with a long back, sloping, dry neck of medium length, strong dry legs, proportionally somewhat shorter than the back. The most common deficiencies are saberiness and closeness of the hocks, short drooping croup, and pacing. The Russian trotter differs from the Oryol breed in somewhat smaller size, some shortening of the body, greater dryness of the constitution, less furrowing of the mane and tail, a straighter neck, better expressed withers, relatively deeper chest, drier and longer limbs with very small brushes.

Russian trotter (Russian trotting horse), photo photograph
Russian trotter (Russian trotting horse), photo photograph

Recently, Russian trotters have been very successfully used to overcome obstacles. This is because they have a unique hind leg structure that allows them to jump high, pushing off close to obstacles and at high speed. Already, many Western trainers prefer trotting horses or horses with a share of trotting blood for difficult and speedy show jumping. So, for example, the Italian, Brazilian, American teams are already 90% equipped with horses with trotting blood. "Little Zhopelyu", only 155 cm tall. - Olympic champion in 1988 - 3/4 French trotter with 1/4 pure blood. World famous Toy Boy - the star of the Brazilian national team - is also a trotter.

Today the best Russian trotter is the black stallion Reprise (Fluoridate - Noble Victory). Reprise is the current All-Russian record holder at a distance of 1600 m for three-year trotters on a winter track of 2 mi 4.9 s and a record holder of the prize named after the Central Moscow Hippodrome for the same distance - 2 min 0.3 s. The best agility of the Reprise at 1600 m - 1 min 59.3 s, with which he won the 2006 Elite Prize.

In addition to tests in trotting races, the Russian trotter is suitable for amateur riding, horse riding and riding for children. Russian trotters are used both in driving and in Russian troikas.

Modern Russian trotters are considered the most numerous and widespread breed of horses in Russia; they are also bred in Ukraine, Moldova and some other CIS countries.

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