Table of contents:
- Here is a list of tools and devices for the veterinary corner required to provide first aid to animals:
Video: Horse Health
2023 Author: Molly Page | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 12:33
Signs of a horse's illness can be loss of performance, the horse has stopped understanding commands or simply does not want to follow them. In a sick horse, even the look becomes gloomy, indifferent, the coat is disheveled. When a horse gets sick, it usually loses its appetite. If a horse is seriously ill, it lies down most of the time. Horses behave restlessly during severe gastrointestinal illnesses, and may even roll on the ground or adopt different postures. Diseases of a surgical nature are accompanied by lameness, the damaged area swells, skin and other body tissues can be damaged.
If a horse is sick, it is imperative to consult a veterinarian, but ordinary people who understand this matter can provide the animal with first aid.
The body temperature of a healthy horse is in the range of 37.5-38.5 degrees, breathing is 8-16 breaths per minute, the pulse is 24-42 beats per minute. In foals, the above indicators are slightly higher: body temperature is up to 39 degrees, the number of breaths reaches 130 beats per minute, the pulse of a newborn foal can reach 130 beats per minute.
External factors (not necessarily illness) can also affect changes in the physical parameters of the body: for example, the environment, air temperature. Much also depends on the breed of the horse, the type of its nervous system: in riding and light-harness breeds, these indicators will be higher than in horses of heavy draft breeds, which have a calm disposition.
The horse's body temperature is measured with an ordinary medical thermometer in the rectum for 5-10 minutes. So that the thermometer does not go deeply or fall out, it is tied with a bandage, at the back end of which there is a strong clothespin, which is fixed by the hair of the tail. There are excellent thermometers with which you can measure the temperature in 1 minute.
Breathing can be easily counted by the movements of the wings of the nose, vibrations of the groin and chest, in winter it is even easier, the steam from the nose is clearly visible. Diseases of the respiratory system are accompanied by disturbances in the rhythm of breathing, the depth and sequence of respiratory movements change. Shortness of breath is one of the most common abnormalities. Shortness of breath can be both on inhalation and exhalation, or in both cases. When short of breath, the horse takes either a double inhalation or a double exhalation, and a "firing" groove appears along the lower edge of the abdomen. Shortness of breath on inspiration speaks of alveolar emphysema.
The pulse is easily felt on the tail artery from the inner side of the repica or on the external jaw artery, in the fossa of the lower jaw. You can still feel the temporal artery. Heart rate is important, but it is much easier for a layman to calculate heart rate. To do this, you need to put your palm under your left elbow, trying to get to the heart area. The difference in tone between the first and second beat tones indicates the strength of the hit. A healthy heart should beat evenly, without interruptions and rhythm disturbances, the tremors under the palm are not strong, but tangible.
You need to check for nasal discharge, there should be no wheezing in the chest. A healthy gastrointestinal tract works as if "cooing". It is worth probing the limbs, looking into the mouth - if there are any wounds, pumps, tops.
Only a doctor can prescribe the correct and effective treatment. But there are situations when it is not possible to immediately use the help of a veterinarian. This makes it necessary to be able to provide the horse with first aid.
Related article Veterinary care for horses
Horses are susceptible to various infectious diseases characteristic only of this species (glanders, myt, encephalomyelitis, infectious anemia, contagious pleuropneumonia, influenza, stachybotriotoxicosis). A similar originality is observed with parasitic diseases (oxyurosis, strongylidosis, gabronematosis, nuttaliosis, etc.)
Almost any disruption of the body usually causes damage, trauma or inflammatory processes in tissues and organs (respiratory diseases, dermatitis, the consequences of mechanical intestinal obstruction, myositis - muscle inflammation, mastitis - inflammation of the udder, etc.). However, the injuries themselves (bruises, wounds, dislocations, etc.) are accompanied by inflammation of the affected tissues.
It's no secret that any disease is easier to prevent than cure. Therefore, horses are vaccinated, vaccinated.
Here is a list of tools and devices for the veterinary corner required to provide first aid to animals:
- Veterinary thermometer - for measuring the body temperature of an animal. It should be in the rectum for no more than 7-10 minutes.
- Curved scissors - for cutting hair in case of skin wounds, at the site of infections, around bruises, etc.
- A scalpel is a small, sharp knife. It is desirable to have a "belly" (with a slightly curved cutting part) and pointed.
- Anatomical forceps - metal spring forceps for grasping the edges of the wound, removing impurities from its surface, for holding cotton swabs.
- Pean's tweezers - hemostatic tweezers with oval lips are needed to stop bleeding from small vessels.
- Kocher Tweezers - Hemostatic tweezers with serrated lips for stopping bleeding from large blood vessels.
- Hoof Knife - Right- and left-handed hoof knives for trimming and trimming hooves before they grow too far back.
- Hoof forceps - for examining hooves during hoofs, hitching, injections of the sole.
- Klystirny mug (Esmarch's mug) - with the help of this device they put enemas or wash the contaminated places, often with a disinfectant solution.
- Syringe - for washing and irrigating the wound, washing the cavity, etc.
- Twist - a device in the form of a stick with a rawhide loop for calming the horse during its examination and simple procedures (the loop is placed on the horse's upper lip and twisted with a stick, diverting the animal's attention from the place being examined).
- A phonendoscope is a device for listening to the work of the heart, lungs and intestines.
- Syringe - for the administration of drugs intravenously, intramuscularly or subcutaneously.
- Hydropult - for disinfection in livestock farming.
- Eye pipettes - for instilling medicines into the eyes.
- Beakers or graduated cups - for accurate metering of liquid medicines.
- Pharmacy scales - for accurate dosing of medicinal substances.
- Bathrobe and towel - so as not to bring harmful microflora to animals.
Home veterinary first aid kit.
Related article Horses and poisonous plants in the pasture
The home veterinary first-aid kit should not contain poisonous and potent medicines. Each substance must be tightly closed in a bottle or can, provided with a label indicating the name of the substance, by whom it was manufactured and the date of manufacture. All medicines, disinfectants, instruments and dressings are stored in a special cabinet or box in a dry room. Bleach, creolin, formalin, ammonia and caustic soda must be stored separately.
The horse must be treated with affection, respect and care. During inspection, the horse may kick or bite. Therefore, you need to know her habits. Before you approach the horse, you need to call it affectionately and, taking into account the temperament and condition of the animal, boldly and quickly approach from the side. Approaching the head, the horse needs to be stroked on the neck, torso, you can easily pat the shoulder blades and sides.
If you approach the horse from the left side, then they rest against the horse with their left hand, if it behaves aggressively, it will be possible to simply push off from it. Approaching from the right side, everything is the same, only on the contrary, they rest with their right hand, and with their free hand they conduct an inspection.
In the case of restless behavior, the front leg is lifted from the viewing side as a safety net, in which case the horse will not have the opportunity to kick with the hind legs with which they usually hit. If the front leg is raised and the horse is worried, a twist is applied to the upper lip. For more complex examinations or operations, they resort to felling and fixing the animal in a supine position.
Most often, the cause of the disease is improper diet or inappropriate conditions of detention. Improper use of horses contributes to the further development of diseases. This list includes such diseases that are caused by improper fitting of the harness, irrational alternation of work and rest times, inhuman exploitation, etc.