Video: Staty Of The Horse's Exterior
When studying individual articles of a horse, you need to know their names, anatomical and physiological basis, form and function, development and structural features in connection with gender, age, conditions of growing and use, as well as shortcomings and defects. Only such knowledge of the articles can provide a solid basis for the correct characterization and evaluation of horses by conformation.
The disadvantages of articles are considered to be undesirable deviations from the norm in their development and form. Defects of articles in horses arise as a result of pathological changes in organs and tissues. Exterior faults and defects can reduce the performance, breeding value and monetary value of horses.
Head. In a fast-paced horse, the head is small, dry and mobile. The head of a heavy truck is characterized by a large size, less dryness and low mobility. According to its general development, the horse's head can be characterized as light, medium, rough, in the ratio of the frontal and facial parts - as broad-forehead, narrow-forehead and in profile - as straight, concave ("pike"), hunchbacked, etc. On the horse's head, eyes and ears are examined., nostrils, lips, oral cavity (teeth, toothless edges, palate, tongue), cheek, ganache and nape.
The eyes of southern horses are mobile, open, sometimes even on a roll-out. Northern horses have more closed eyes, with a fleshy eyelid. When examining the eyes of a horse, it is necessary to trace how their pupil reacts to different lighting and whether there are spots (cinnamon) or an eruption (cataract) on the cornea of the eye. There are a lot of visual defects and defects in a horse: astigmatism, glaucoma, periodic blindness, etc. With immobility of the pupil, called dark water, a horse can be completely blind. With poor eyesight, horses are fearful, raise their legs high on the move, stumble and, asymmetrically spreading their ears, try to compensate for the lack of vision by hearing.
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The ears of horses of southern origin, mountain and stables are usually longer, thinner and more mobile than those of horses of northern, steppe and herd keeping. A wide set and drooping ears are called lop-eared, a cropped ear is called corn-eared.
Nostrils. When examining the nostrils, one should pay attention to the mobility of the nasal wings, to the properties of the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity, to the temperature and smell of exhaled air. An open state and "play" at rest of the nostrils with irregular or intermittent breathing indicate a defect in breathing - a fuse (emphysema of the lungs). Increased pallor or redness of the nasal mucosa, ulcers on it, as well as purulent mucus are accompanied by various diseases (myt, glanders, catarrh, etc.).
The horse's lips, completely closing the mouth, should easily grip and hold the food well. With age, the lips of a horse become wrinkled and droop in older horses. The corners of the mouth often have lesions and calluses.
The horse's tongue is long and mobile, plays an important role in the formation and movement of small food lumps to the narrow esophagus. In a bridled horse, the tongue is the support for the bit. A thick tongue weakens the action of the bit and can be the cause of tightness; a thin tongue can be easily removed by the horse from under the bit, which leads to the so-called re-assembly. Tongue injuries are slow to heal and can be the cause of poor condition in the horse. Low, thick, coarse and insensitive toothless edges of the horse's jaw are accompanied by tightness, high, sharp, thin and sensitive - weakness.
The cheek, or the space between the ganaches, in all horses is preferred to be wide, accommodating four fingers clenched into a fist (8-9 cm), which ensures the incompressibility of the horse's throat when bending the head to the throat edge of the neck. Ganaches, or the angles of the branches of the lower jaw, in a horse have a particularly strong development due to the large role of their muscles during chewing. Widely spaced ganaches do not constrain the horse's breathing. Narrow ganaches, on the other hand, make breathing difficult.
The nape is based on a segment of the nuchal ligament from the occipital crest of the skull to the first cervical vertebra. The mobility and positioning of the horse's head to the neck depends on the length and width of its nape. Injuries to the occiput of a horse lead to inflammation, abscesses and fistulas of the occipital mucosa called puffins.
The bangs descending from the back of the head to the forehead protects it from the sun's rays and cold, and the eyes from insects.
The neck, in conjunction with the head, is the most important regulator of the horse's movement. Lowering the neck and head loads the front legs, lifting the hind legs, turning to the left - the legs of the left side, turning to the right - the legs of the right side. When the horse is standing, the neck and head can make all kinds of turns. On fast movements, the neck and head take a fixed position.
Compared to cattle, sheep and pigs, the horse's neck is especially long and mobile. This special "neck" of the horse is the result of the evolutionary development of steppe animals in connection with the increase in their mobility, long legs and the need to get pasture. The longest and thinnest neck in riding horses. A short and thick neck is typical of heavy draft trucks. In horses, a distinction is made between normal, high and low neck set. Horses of mountain, steppe and working breeds with a lower body position between the thoracic limbs have a lower neck exit, horses of fast gaits with an elongated free part of the limbs - a higher neck exit. By the shape of the bend, they distinguish between a straight neck, a swan neck and a deer.
Withers. The bone base of the withers is the spinous processes of the first 10 thoracic vertebrae. The withers are an organ that counteracts the bending of the spine under the action of the forces: 1) support on the anterior girdle of the limbs, 2) pre-support gravity of the head and neck, 3) post-support gravity of the abdominal viscera, and 4) pushing impulses of the hind limbs. The sex, age, training, and condition of their fatness have a great influence on the development and severity of the withers in horses. Training horses in a canter with the neck extended forward has a straightening effect on the spinous processes, which leads to an increase in the height of the withers. With increased fatness of the horse, the development of the withers is hidden.
The withers are characterized by both height, length and width. In riding horses, the withers are high and long, in trotters it is high, but less long, in heavy draft horses it is lower, wider and merges with the neck. Especially high and short withers are susceptible to damage from incorrectly fitted saddles, saddles and clamps. Pressures, suppurations and fistulas of the withers refer to intractable diseases of the horse.
Back. The anatomical basis of the back is made up of the thoracic vertebrae (from the 11th to the 18th), the upper part of the corresponding ribs and a group of dorsal muscles. The back together with the loin is like a bridge connecting the front of the horse with the rear. The horse's back is scored for length, width, shape and muscularity. The short back satisfies the requirements for the agility, strength and endurance of a riding horse. However, a short back does not provide the horse with the necessary flexibility and freedom of movement, which leads to pinching of the limbs. With a long back, the horse's movements become more spacious, softer and more elastic. In a harness horse with a long back and a long body, the support area increases.
By shape, a straight, soft, sagging and carp-like back is distinguished. The carp-like back is observed when the spinal column bulges upwards. Horses with such a back show a shortened body, associated movements and pinching of the limbs. Horses with carp-like backs are less flexible and shaky under the saddle, but have a high capacity for carrying a pack. Sometimes carp occurs as a result of the arching of the back upward in young horses when transporting large weights in harness.
Small of the back. The bone base of the lumbar spine is formed by the lumbar spine, devoid of ribs, but characterized by fusion of the transverse processes of the vertebrae. In the lower back, we connect the front and back of the body. Through the loins, the forward thrust from the horse's hind is transmitted to the front. The musculature of the lower back is involved in closing the corners of the hind limbs. The loin of a horse is characterized and scored for length, width and shape. A sunken, or sagging, lower back indicates a poor connection with the sacrum and insufficient development of its muscles. A carp-like, or convex, loin is undesirable for the same reasons as a carp-like back.
Sigh. A breath in a horse is the area of the abdominal wall that moves during breathing between the posterior edge of the last rib, the anterior edge of the ilium and the transverse processes of the lumbar vertebrae. A short, 8-9 cm long, sigh is usually observed in pack horses used in the mountains. A long, more than 10 cm, sigh is undesirable, since horses with such a sigh, incorrectly called fluffy, are weak or poorly conserved. Sunken sighs that form "hungry pits" occur in emaciated horses, bloated ones are observed in gastrointestinal diseases.
Article on the topic Anatomical and physiological foundations of the exterior and constitution of horses
The rib cage is formed by the thoracic spine, sternum and ribs. In fast-paced horses, the ribcage is deep with an elliptical cross-section, with a long sternum, with ribs deflected back. In stepping horses, the ribcage is broad, with a rounded cross-section, with a short sternum and ribs that are not bent back. With an increase in the length and slope of the ribs, the intercostal spaces and the mobility of the ribs increase, which facilitate breathing.
The way horses are kept has a great influence on the development of the chest. Good feeding with voluminous food, as well as exercise of foals, ensure good development of the chest. When grazing in cold climate zones, in northern and mountainous regions, the chest develops in length, width and depth. With poor feeding and in hot climates (in deserts) the chest in horses is underdeveloped.