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Video: Foal And Foal Of Mares
Horses during the period of pregnancy are very sensitive to disturbances in the normal conditions of keeping, feeding and using at work. The influence of some of these conditions on the body of the foal and on the uterine development of the foal can be judged, for example, by the dependence of the duration of fruiting on the nature of feeding the mare. So, with the deterioration of feeding in some years, there is a slight lengthening of the period of fertility, and with a very sharp undernourishment, foals are born premature and weak.
Duration of fruiting in mares
On average, the duration of the fertility of mares, counting from the day of the last bearing of the stallion, is 11 months, or 335 days. However, there are also deviations that most often do not go beyond 315-360 days. Fluctuations in the duration of fertility depend on a number of circumstances: the greatest deviations are usually associated with feeding and keeping mares; there is also a connection with the sex of the fetus and the breed of the parents, with the personality of the mother and father, and even in some cases with their linear affiliation; Young primiparous mares usually carry the fetus a little longer, and old or severely emaciated mares often do not wear out.
Usually mothers' stallions are carried a little longer than fillies. However, this difference is small, only 1-2 days. The duration of the fertility of mares of related groups when covered with different stallions is also different.
The question of the relationship between the duration of fertility and the breed, age, sex is, perhaps, more theoretical than practical. The influence of feeding on fertility, the course of fertility and the result of foal, on the contrary, is of great economic and economic importance both in pedigree and in commercial horse breeding. It was noticed that the duration of the fertility of trotting mares in state stud farms in years of good feeding was 333 days, and in years less favorable in terms of feeding conditions - 340 days. For a thoroughbred horse breed in the Streletsky stud farm, in years favorable for feeding, the duration of fruiting was 325-329 days, and in unfavorable years - 339 days. Belgian heavy trucks in the USSR during the years of unfavorable feeding (1918-1923) bore the fetus on average 344 days,at home, the duration of the fertility of mares of this breed is on average 329.5 days. Thus, within certain limits, on average, a shorter fruiting period can be regarded as an indicator of a higher horse breeding technique, and the elongation of fruiting, most likely, indicates shortcomings in the feeding and maintenance of horses. However, too short a period of fruiting is also undesirable, as it indicates prematurity of the fetus.
Feeding and caring for pregnant mares
From the first days of pregnancy, mares should be in conditions of correct, complete feeding. During the summer, they should be kept in good pasture for 5-6 hours a day. In winter, you need to practice feeding a variety of forages, using oats, barley, corn, wheat bran, oilcakes, cereal meadow and legume hay, and good quality silage. To provide fertile queens with vitamins during the stall period, they are given red carrots (up to 6-7 kg per day), which is the most valuable and suitable vitamin feed for horses, and specially germinated grain. During germination, the grain is enriched with vitamins A, B, and E, which are very necessary for the body of the foal. The germinated grain (wheat, rye, oats) is fed to the daytime summer cottage along with concentrates. Horses are gradually accustomed to this vitamin supplement,starting from 50 g (in terms of dry grain; the weight of the sprouted is correct by about 70-80%) and bringing its amount to 300 g per head per day. The use of germinated grain reduces the number of non-infectious abortions. You just need to carefully monitor its quality and prevent mold from developing.
During pregnancy, the mare's body especially needs calcium and phosphorus salts. These minerals are necessary not only for the normal course of physiological processes in the body of the pregnant uterus, but also for the normal development of the fetus. The queens, which do not receive minerals in the feed, eat the earth, sand, lick stone walls, and eat feces. All this serves as a sign of mineral starvation of their body and can cause colic. Therefore, when drawing up diets for foal mares, special attention should be paid to their mineral nutritional value. In the last third of pregnancy, the diets of pregnant mares per 100 kg of their weight should contain 17 g of calcium, 7 g of phosphorus and 25-35 mg of carotene.
From time to time, it is useful to introduce wheat bran into the diet of a foal mare in an amount of 0.5 to 2 kg. They have an excellent effect on the functioning of the digestive tract, preventing dangerous prenatal constipation. Before feeding, the bran of the cast is moistened with water.
Bean hay (alfalfa) is an excellent source of complete protein, minerals and vitamins. It must be completely benign, otherwise constipation and bloating are inevitable. Foals should be fed such hay together with cereals (also of high quality).
In the last two months, leguminous hay foals give no more than 25% of the total amount of hay. The total supply of voluminous feed in the diet of a foal mare should not (exceed 2 kg per 100 kg of her weight in the first two-thirds of pregnancy and 1.5 kg in the last third of this period. With a large amount of roughage in the diets of foal mares, they should be fed more often.
Article on the topic Pathology of foal in mares
It is unacceptable to use for feeding such queens contaminated, putrefactive and infected with various parasitic fungi, as this will inevitably lead to their illness, abortion, and in severe cases it can be fatal.
Overfeeding, as well as underfeeding, foal queens are equally harmful. In both a fattened and an emaciated mare, foals are born weak, sickly; at the same time, queens often produce insufficient milk after foal, and they do not feed foals well. Still, the fat condition of a foal mare should be above average, and in the last two months it must be brought into a state of good nutrition. Such queens subsequently usually show high milk production and lose less weight after foaling during the sucking period.
Feeding queens should be fed 4 times a day, if possible at regular intervals.Feed during the day can be distributed, for example, as follows: hay is approximately equally divided between all feedings or in two evenings they give slightly more than in the morning and afternoon, straw is fed equally at the first and last feeding, carrots are given in the daytime feeding, and concentrates are distributed approximately equally in the first three dachas. Succulent feed is given together with concentrated (with bran) or in front of them. When giving two voluminous feeds in one feeding, first of all, you need to give less tasty (straw), and secondly, more readily eaten (hay). Carrots, beets, potatoes should be fed washed and cut. During grazing, queen foals are usually fed twice a day, before they are released to the pasture and after they come from the pasture. At the same time, concentrates are given before release to the pasture, and roughage in the evening.It is not recommended to feed foal queens with vetch hay, and also to give them bard and bagasse. This causes them to be constipated and bloated.
When grazing, one must beware of the grazing of queens in the morning through abundant dew, as well as over frosty grass or over freezing winter crops. It is not uncommon for queens released into wet and cold pastures to be aborted en masse. In cases of concern, foal mares (they should be fed with dry hay before being released to pasture, and they are not so eagerly pounced on pasture food compared to when they stand all night without food.
Special attention should be paid to feeding mares in the last month of fertility. Weeks 2-3 before foaling, bean hay should be excluded from the diet, and the rate of roughage should be reduced to 4-5 kg. They should be fed more often and in small portions. The grain is fed in a crimped form, and the bran is fed in the form of a thick porridge. The mares should be given 8-10 liters of cold water 3 times a day.
In addition to rational feeding, exercise, prolonged exposure to fresh air, bright, clean, dry, spacious stables have a beneficial effect on the health of the foal and the development of the fetus.
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Foal mares should be used with extreme caution on the job. You need to trust them only to experienced, conscientious sleds. After the sixth month of fertility, it is better to use the mares only for light work, and in the last two months before foaling and in the first two weeks after it, it is better to completely release them from work. In this case, the uterus must be provided with sufficient exercise - a daily 3-4-hour walk in the levada or a ride. Especially valuable breeding queens, not previously accustomed to harnessing, should be driven for 1.5 hours. For this purpose, horse farms and stud farms are beginning to use special walkers (as well as at hippodromes). When releasing queens into the levada, it is necessary to ensure that the meek do not fall together with the obstinate and evil.