Horses: Breeding

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Horses: Breeding
Horses: Breeding

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Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: breeding horses 2023, February
Anonim

Breeding and breeding methods for horse breeds

In horse breeding, two methods of horse breeding are used: purebred and crossbreeding. The main method of pedigree work with horse breeds that have reached a certain level of economically useful qualities is purebred breeding, that is, the mating of animals belonging to the same breed. This breeding method allows maintaining a known hereditary homogeneity in the breed, reliably maintaining and developing the qualities inherent in the breed. The purebred breeding method is used in breeding farms for breeding thoroughbred horse, Arabian, Akhal-Teke, Oryol trotter, Soviet heavy draft and a number of other factory breeds. Scientists and practitioners of horse breeding have identified important aspects of this breeding method, the skillful use of which increases the efficiency of selection when improving horse breeds.These include horse breeding along lines, which is considered a key issue in the theory and practice of breeding in horse breeding. The invention of this method, according to prof. VO Vitta, undoubtedly belongs to the Khrenovsky stud farm, decades ahead of Western European practice and the theory of breeding farm animals.

Curious horse, photo photography
Curious horse, photo photography

A line is an objectively existing group of pedigree animals that has a certain qualitative originality and is associated with a certain ancestor. It is dynamic, lends itself to the directional influences of the specialists working with it, develops, retaining some valuable qualities and changing others in one direction or another.

With the correct zootechnical work, the line is able to progress from generation to generation. Usually the lines are named after the names of their founders, that is, the stallions-producers of outstanding quality of the offspring. When working with lines, a related breeding is used - inbreeding.

In practical work, a distinction is made between close inbreeding, or breeding in close relationship, moderate and distant inbreeding.According to the generally accepted system of designating the ranks of ancestors (according to Shaporuz), it can be assumed that the mating of a father with a daughter (inbreeding to a father II-I), a son to a mother (inbreeding to a mother I-II), brothers and sisters (inbreeding II, II-II, II), half-brothers with half-sisters (inbreeding I-II), as well as inbreeding according to formula III-III should be attributed to close; inbreeding within the IV and V rows of ancestors - to moderate and after the V row of ancestors - to distant. Inbreeding can also be simple, if one ancestor is repeated in the pedigree of the mother and father, and complex, if two, three or more ancestors are repeated. The purpose of using inbreeding in horse breeding is to preserve the dignity of the most valuable animals, to create greater resistance to the transmission of hereditary qualities to the offspring.

The worldwide use of inbreeding, especially without taking into account the quality of the mated individuals and their closest ancestors, in most cases gave unsatisfactory results, therefore, inbreeding should be used very carefully, given that inbred animals often have a weakened constitution and reduced fertility.

The leading place in breeding work with pedigree breeds is occupied by crosses of lines.Skillful use of mating animals belonging to different lines and genealogical complexes leads to mutual enrichment of lines with new qualities, the manifestation of heterosis in purebred breeding, which is expressed, in particular, in the high performance of horses. Breeders have created many crosses, later identified as extremely valuable methods of improving breeds. So, in the Oryol trotting breed, the "golden" cross has long been known, which is quite effective in mating horses of the Lovchego line with the Barchuk line, in the thoroughbred riding breed - the Tagore line with the Brimston line, in the Soviet heavy draft breed - the God line with the Jasmine line, etc. Crosses give a positive effect only with planned purposeful breeding work. Breeders should be clear about the purpose of line-breeding horses,to carefully select the outstanding successors of the line and, by rationally matching pairs, to improve the breed.

White horse wandering in the fog, photo photography
White horse wandering in the fog, photo photography

The selection of horses is carried out according to the exterior, constitution, measurements, working capacity, shown in racetrack tests and economic use, as well as in equestrian competitions, according to productive qualities, origin and quality of offspring. The selection is carried out systematically, from generation to generation. The complexity of selection increases with the increase in the number of features by which it is carried out.

Selection as a method of improving breeds has been used for a long time. The selection can be homogeneous or heterogeneous. The essence of homogeneous selection lies in the fact that mares and the mares matched to them are largely similar to each other in terms of the main features of selection. Heterogeneous selection consists in the fact that the mated animals are obviously different in one or more characteristics. This selection makes it possible to compensate for individual shortcomings of one of the parents with the advantage of the other.

Horse breeding season
Horse breeding season

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The selection should be individual, carefully thought out, comprehensively justified. The best mares should be selected from the most valuable stud stallions.

In pure-bred breeding of horses such a method of breeding work as "blood refreshing" is also used.His way lies in the fact that in this case they mate animals of the same breed, but raised in different climatic zones and even countries. Most often, this technique is used in zootechnical work with a thoroughbred horse breed. To improve horses of this breed, pedigree producers are imported from England, France and other countries. In addition, within the framework of the International Congress on Horse Breeding and Testing of Horses, an exchange of selection material is carried out, as well as sending brood mares to producers belonging to foreign stud farms. For example, the stud farm "Voskhod" acquired from b. GDR stallion-producer Factotum, 1952, b., And from the mating of the mare Ragusa with Bakhistown in the stud farm "Napaedla" in Czechoslovakia received the stallion Raut. Born in 1976 Both stallions have proven to be valuable studs in purebred horse breeding.A positive effect in breeding work with breeds is also provided by such a method as the exchange of stallions-producers between horse breeding farms. For example, the purchase by the Voskhod stud of the stud stallion Daring, born in 1954, was very successful. grown in Ukraine in the Derkul stud farm. A large group of wonderful horses was obtained from this breeder in "Voskhod", including the stallion Aden, born in 1975, from Alpha, the winner of the race for the European prize in 1978 (Cologne). The Moscow stud farm has achieved impressive achievements in breeding Oryol trotters through the scientific use of the stallion Pion, born in 1966, a three-time champion of the USSR Exhibition of Economic Achievements, raised in the Dubrovsky stud farm, Poltava region.as an exchange of stud stallions between horse farms. For example, the purchase by the Voskhod stud of the stud stallion Daring, born in 1954, was very successful. grown in Ukraine in the Derkul stud farm. A large group of wonderful horses was obtained from this breeder in "Voskhod", including the stallion Aden, born in 1975, from Alpha, the winner of the race for the European prize in 1978 (Cologne). The Moscow stud farm has achieved impressive achievements in breeding Oryol trotters through the scientific use of the stallion Pion, born in 1966, a three-time champion of the USSR Exhibition of Economic Achievements, raised in the Dubrovsky stud farm of the Poltava region.as an exchange of stud stallions between horse farms. For example, the purchase by the Voskhod stud of the stud stallion Daring, born in 1954, was very successful. grown in Ukraine in the Derkul stud farm. A large group of wonderful horses was obtained from this breeder in "Voskhod", including the stallion Aden, born in 1975, from Alpha, the winner of the race for the European prize in 1978 (Cologne). The Moscow stud farm has achieved impressive achievements in breeding Oryol trotters through the scientific use of the stallion Pion, born in 1966, a three-time champion of the USSR Exhibition of Economic Achievements, raised in the Dubrovsky stud farm of the Poltava region.grown in Ukraine in the Derkul stud farm. A large group of wonderful horses was obtained from this breeder in "Voskhod", including the stallion Aden, born in 1975, from Alpha, the winner of the race for the European prize in 1978 (Cologne). The Moscow stud farm has achieved impressive achievements in breeding Oryol trotters through the scientific use of the stallion Pion, born in 1966, a three-time champion of the USSR Exhibition of Economic Achievements, raised in the Dubrovsky stud farm of the Poltava region.grown in Ukraine in the Derkul stud farm. A large group of wonderful horses was obtained from this breeder in "Voskhod", including the stallion Aden, born in 1975, from Alpha, the winner of the race for the European prize in 1978 (Cologne). The Moscow stud farm has achieved impressive achievements in breeding Oryol trotters through the scientific use of the stallion Pion, born in 1966, a three-time champion of the USSR Exhibition of Economic Achievements, raised in the Dubrovsky stud farm of the Poltava region.three-time champion of the USSR Exhibition of Economic Achievements, raised in the Dubrovsky stud farm of the Poltava region.three-time champion of the USSR Exhibition of Economic Achievements, raised in the Dubrovsky stud farm of the Poltava region.

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