Table of contents:
- Organization of work on reproduction
- Use of stallions
- Timing of breeding campaign
- Preparing for the breeding campaign
Video: Reproduction (breeding) Of Horses
Expanded reproduction and quality improvement of horses is one of the main tasks of horse breeding. Modern advances in artificial insemination with the widespread use of high-value stud stallions can significantly speed up the process of qualitative transformation of the horse stock. At the same time, it is possible to increase the efficiency of reproduction by improving the organizational forms of natural mating.
Organization of work on reproduction
Both natural mating and artificial insemination are usually used for stables and stables and pastures. Both methods are currently used in stud farms and breeding farms. In farms where the cultural herd and herd method of keeping horses is used, the main method of insemination is natural mating.
Planning of the type of insemination (natural, artificial) should be carried out taking into account the availability of trained personnel, material and technical base, the number of mares, as well as the way of keeping them. On collective and state farms with a small number of mares, such an option can be used as the creation of seasonal breeding herds, as well as artificial insemination points, both on-farm and inter-farm.
Use of stallions
The success of reproduction work is largely determined by the selection of stallions-producers. Selection requirements should be differentiated depending on the level of breeding. In stud farms, both for artificial insemination and for mating, the selection of stallions is carried out in accordance with long-term breeding programs. On the pedigree farms of collective and state farms, stallions of the elite class are selected. All adult stallions and stallions older than two years old, not selected for reproduction, must be castrated.
In farms where one stallion is kept, it is necessary to carry out a planned replacement of the stallion after four years of its use in order to prevent inbreeding. The planned rotation of stallions is carried out under the control of agricultural authorities, which are involved in organizing horse breeding.
In herd horse breeding, when selecting a stud stallion, attention is paid to the type, origin, measurements and conformation, adaptive qualities and mowing instincts are assessed.
Timing of breeding campaign
The timing of the beginning and end of the breeding season depends on the natural and climatic conditions and the technology of keeping horses adopted at the farm. Particular attention is paid to the provision of fodder and horse-breeding buildings.
In pedigree horse breeding with stables and stables and pastures, the period from February 1 to June 15 is considered optimal for artificial insemination and mating, and with cultural herd, depending on the availability of stables for early foaling of mares, from April 1 to June 15 or from May 1 to July 1.
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With the herd method of keeping horses, the release of shoals should be carried out starting from the second half of April, and the stallions should be removed from the shoals, forming herds, no later than August 1. In the north of Siberia and in Yakutia, on commercial farms in Kazakhstan and in some other zones, they practice year-round keeping of stallions in shoals.
In working horse breeding, in order to effectively use mares at work in the spring-summer period, it is advisable to start the breeding campaign from March 1 and end on July 15.
Preparing for the breeding campaign
Before the start of the breeding campaign, at least a month in advance, it is necessary to conduct a veterinary-zootechnical examination of the entire production composition. This will allow to allocate for treatment of sick animals.
In case of stall keeping, feeding of stallions and mares should be carried out in accordance with the detailed "Norms and rations for feeding farm animals". Particular attention should be paid to the systematic exercise of stallions and mares.