Horse Hygiene

Horse Hygiene
Horse Hygiene

Video: Horse Hygiene

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
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The system of keeping animals is chosen taking into account the production orientation of the industry and the natural and climatic characteristics. In horse breeding, two systems of keeping are mainly used : stable-pasture and herd.

As an example of stables and pastures, the conditions of most stud farms can be cited. Horses are kept individually or in groups, depending on the production purpose and age. As a rule, stud stallions, valuable mares with foals, weaning foals and young animals in training are kept individually in special price tags. For working horses and young animals of all groups and directions, which are less valuable in breeding terms, they use the hall way of keeping (the size of sections is from 20 to 100 heads, depending on the age of the animals). In hall-type stables, stalls for foaling mares must be equipped.

In stud farms and pedigree horse farms, special areas are fenced off near the stables, which are called paddocks. The area of ​​an individual paddock for stud stallions is 600 m 2, for young stock in training - 400 m 2, for other groups of horses - 20 m 2.

Cleaning horse fur coat, scraper, photo photography
Cleaning horse fur coat, scraper, photo photography

In the warm season, in combination with stables, the horses are grazed. Cultivated pastures are divided into separate plots, where certain age groups of horses of 50-80 heads are grazed separately.

The herd system of keeping horses has been practiced for a long time and has survived to this day as the cheapest way of producing and raising horses on natural feed. The herd keeping of horses is based on the development and maintenance of the herd instinct inherent in all herbivores. This maintenance system is divided into cultural herd and improved herd.

Rules for harnessing and saddling horses
Rules for harnessing and saddling horses

Related article Rules for harnessing and saddling horses

The cultural-herd way of keeping is more progressive and is used for raising breeding horses; it is also used on many commercial farms. This method is governed by the fulfillment of certain requirements; dividing animals into homogeneous groups by sex and age; the manifestation of special care for the protection of animals from adverse weather conditions. For the cold season, stables are arranged for stallions-producers, foals of mares and young stock in training. The rest of the horses are housed in simplified stables with canopy and split bases.

With an improved herd system, horses are grazed all year round. For the period of bad weather, simplified premises are built for some of the animals (stallions, foal mares and lactating mares in the first days after foal). The rest of the animals are sheltered from bad weather in natural lulls formed by ravines, beams, forests, hills, etc. They will equip shelter bases from local raw materials (branches, reeds, etc.), in which they create the necessary stocks of hay and provide for the organization of a watering hole.

In order to better organize pasture maintenance, it is necessary to comply with certain zoohygienic requirements when forming herds. Separate grazing of stallions and fillies is provided. Depending on the nature of the pasture land, the number of livestock and the direction of horse breeding, the size of the herds is determined. For breeding farms, the following herd sizes are recommended: broodstock - from 80-150 heads, young animals - up to 150 heads, stallions - 20 heads and more. In meat farms with flat pastures, herds are formed, numbering up to 400 mares with offspring; in mountainous areas, the number of herds is reduced to 100 heads.

During the breeding campaign, shoals are formed with a targeted selection of stallions at the rate of 15-20 mares per young sire (3-4 years old) and up to 25-30 mares per full-age stallion.

When driving animals from one pasture to another, the speed of their movement should not exceed 6 km per hour; every 10-15 km, it is advisable to provide horses with grazing rest. The duration of the haul is no more than 30 km per day.

An important requirement is the observance of the sanitary and hygienic state of pastures and watering places. You should choose pastures with a favorable epizootic state, that is, where there are no cattle burial grounds on the way, no crossings of livestock passages and roadways.

Combing the bangs of a horse's mane, scraper, photo photography
Combing the bangs of a horse's mane, scraper, photo photography

It is better to use water from artesian wells for watering. Rivers, lakes, ponds where the water meets sanitary and hygienic requirements can be used as open reservoirs for watering horses.

Compliance with zoohygienic rules in organizing the herd system of keeping helps to strengthen the health of horses, increases their endurance and resistance to the adverse effects of extreme weather conditions.

For horse farms, choose a dry location with low groundwater levels. The territory of the farm should be slightly elevated in relief, with a natural slope for the drainage of rainfall and melt water. Low places should be avoided, especially near marshes and various bodies of water with low banks. Stables built in such places are usually damp, which is one of the predisposing factors for the occurrence of respiratory diseases in animals.

Brancard
Brancard

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Horse-breeding farms are located far from roadways and livestock tracts (no closer than 2 km). On the territory of the farm, there should be no cattle burial grounds, both active and old burial of corpses. It is also impossible to locate horse farms closer than 3 km from leather processing enterprises. When choosing a location for the location of a horse breeding enterprise, it is necessary to take into account all veterinary, sanitary and zoogygienic requirements in order to ensure reliable epizootic well-being.

The stables are located so that surface water from the farm does not flow towards the residential area, cultural and domestic buildings, water intake facilities. Veterinary facilities (isolators, quarantines) and manure storages should be located below the livestock buildings.

When placing a horse farm and living quarters, it is important to consider the "wind rose". The farm must be built on the leeward side of the residential area. The wind rose is also taken into account when orienting the stables; they are placed with the end side to the direction of the prevailing winds. This rule of stables placement is carried out in order to preserve heat in them as much as possible in winter.

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