Video: How To Shoe A Horse?
Horses are shoed according to their use. Riding horses - mainly on the front legs with lighter horseshoes, harness - on two front legs in summer and all four in winter and in ice. Trotting and racehorses tested on racetracks are shod in a "circle", that is, on all four limbs.
Horses are usually reforged, as needed, every 1-1.5 months. Horseshoes for horses must be strong, well fitted to the hoof; you cannot ride if the horseshoe is broken or slips. A thousand years ago, people noticed that "it is impossible to ride on a barefoot horse along the Kolza path." However, horses should be given rest from horseshoes at least once a year: for 1-2 months they should be allowed to walk barefoot in the meadow, on soft ground. A horse is forged at the hitching post, at the junction in the stable (tied on both sides with ropes for the halter rings) or in special machines, which could first of all be seen near every village smithy.
Related article Horse hooves, grooming and shoeing
The following tools are needed for forging: forging pliers, rasp with large and small notches, cleaver, cutting, hoof knife, forging hammer, spike wrench, paw, as well as horseshoes and horseshoe nails, otherwise called uhnals. Horseshoes are made either by hand in the forge, or they are stamped, standard, with removable thorns - industrial production. Standard equestrian horseshoes for working horses are produced in accordance with GOST 5408-77 in eight sizes according to numbers from No. 1 (smallest size) to No. 8 (largest size). The number of the horseshoe, as well as the index of the front ("p") or back ("z") of the horseshoe and the trademark of the manufacturer are affixed on the lower surface. Horseshoes No. 1 and 2 each have eight nail holes (for small hooves), horseshoes No. 3 and 4 (medium) - nine each, No. 5, 6, 7 and 8 - twelve each.
The minimum weight of the horseshoe is 200 g, the maximum is 720 g; from number to number the weight of the horseshoe increases by 30-40 g. Removable rectangular (H-shaped) thorns, blunt (summer) and sharp (winter), are complexed to the horseshoes. Horseshoes Nos. 1, 2 and 3 are equipped with one spike in the toe part, the rest of the horseshoes - two each (they have two spike holes). Obviously, double-studded shoes give the horse more stability. The spikes are cut and can be easily inserted into the holes of the horseshoes using a spike wrench. Well-made horseshoes necessarily have a bulge, that is, a bevel from the edge of the toe part inward.
Horseshoe nails (uhnali) are produced in accordance with GOST 1217-77 in five sizes according to numbers 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. The length of the nail No. 5 - 52 mm, No. 6 - 55, No. 7 - 59, No. 8 - 64, No. 9 - 70 mm. Nails No. 5 are intended for fastening horseshoes No. 1 and 2, No. 6 - for horseshoes No. 3, No. 7 - for horseshoes No. 4, No. 8 - for horseshoes No. 5, No. 9 - for horseshoes No. 6, 7, 8.
Article on topic Horse hoof care in winter
To master the forging technique, you need to know the structure of the horse's hoof.This is a horny formation, consisting of three parts: the horny wall growing from the top of the corolla, as well as the sole and frog. The corneal wall, in turn, also consists of three layers: outer, middle and inner. The inner layer of the horny wall passes into a white line, which is clearly visible on the sole of the hoof. This line is insensitive, so nails are driven along it to attach the horseshoe. The introduction of foreign bodies behind it, to the center of the hoof, including binding nails (forging), leads to hoof injury. The plantar edge of the horny wall protrudes below the horny sole. He is the main support of the horse (its mass is distributed over four such supports); it is on it that a horseshoe is applied and fixed with horseshoe nails. The horn sole is the part of the horn shoe (shoe bottom) facing the ground. Horny sole to the middle of the hoof,consisting of a softer, more elastic horn, passes into an arrow, which weakens the force of the horse's leg impact, that is, it serves as a kind of shock absorber.
Shoeing includes the following operations: examining the limbs, removing old shoes, trimming the hooves, taking measurements from the hoof, fitting and attaching the horseshoe to the hoof. The fitted horseshoe should conform to the shape of the hoof and fit snugly against the suspended edge of the horn wall without touching the frog. The nail holes should be against the white line. In the toe part and the side walls of the hoof, the horseshoe can protrude outward by 0.5 mm, at the heel walls - by 3-5 mm. The lambs from the nails should not stick out above the horny wall, so they are bitten off with needle-nose pliers and washed down with a rasp. Do not file the outside of the hoof as this will strip it of the protective layer. Do not try on red-hot horseshoes on a horse's hooves - it dries the horn.
Horse shoeing requires good skill, strength, resourcefulness from the farrier. This work is very hard. If the horse is young or very excited, it is not allowed to forge, then in the first days they only tap on the soles of the hooves, raise its legs one by one. Then two legs are forged, and the next day a second pair of legs.
Source: Livanova T., “Horse breeding and equestrian sport” magazine, 1998, N4, p. 27