Tailed Amphibians (Caudata)

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Tailed Amphibians (Caudata)
Tailed Amphibians (Caudata)

Video: Tailed Amphibians (Caudata)

Video: Tailed Amphibians (Caudata)
Video: АКСОЛОТЛЬ: Вечно молодая саламандра регенерирует даже мозг | Интересные факты про амфибий и животных 2023, November

The order of tailed amphibians, or amphibians, unites about 280 living species. The head passes imperceptibly into an elongated body; there is always a tail. The front and hind legs are of approximately the same size; in some species the limbs are poorly developed, while in sirens the rear pair is reduced. 4 toes on the front and 5 or 4 (Siberian newt) toes on the hind legs. The vertebrae are amphitic (biconcave) or opisthocoelous (posterior concave). The frontal and parietal bones of the skull are not fused. The ilium is not extended into a long process. There is no tympanic cavity and tympanic membrane. Crawl or swim, bending the body and tail in a serpentine manner; usually when swimming, the limbs are pressed against the body. Many amphibians have adopted an aquatic lifestyle.

Fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), photo photography
Fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra), photo photography

Fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra)

Fertilization in most species is internal, while the female captures a mucous sac with spermatozoa (spermatophore) deposited by the male with the cloaca. Less often, external fertilization, in this case, the male attaches the spermatophore to the mucous sacs with eggs deposited in the water. The number of eggs can vary, from a few tens to hundreds. Many tailed amphibians in one form or another are inherent in caring for offspring, from simple wrapping of eggs in the leaves of underwater plants to egg production. The larvae have 4 pairs of gill slits, which, as a rule, disappear in adults. Metamorphosis occurs gradually, without radical transformations.

Distributed mainly in the northern hemisphere. They are absent in Australia, only 4 species are found in Africa (and about 800 species of amphibians of other orders), only a few species inhabit the north of South America. More common in mountainous areas where there are few tailless amphibians. The detachment is divided into 5 suborders, uniting 8 families.

Triton, photo photography
Triton, photo photography

The most primitive species make up the suborder - Cryptobranchoidea; they are characterized by amphicylic vertebrae, external fertilization, and a number of other features.

The suborder Ambistomatoidea includes one family Ambistomatidae, the species of which are common in North and Central America. Adults live along the banks of reservoirs, hiding in shelters for a day. Aquatic larvae of many ambists - axolotls - are capable of reaching the size of adults and, without undergoing metamorphosis, reproduce sexually. Neotenia - the ability of the larva to reproduce sexually - is also characteristic of some other tailed amphibians.

Triton, photo photography
Triton, photo photography

The suborder Meantes has one family of lilacs - Sirenidae are distributed in the southeast of North America and, apparently, represent neotenic larvae of some kind, perhaps an ambist, in which the adult stage has disappeared in the process of evolution. They have only forelimbs, very small and weak; feathery external gills and gill slits persist throughout life. Breathe with gills and well-developed lungs; live in swamps, feeding on invertebrates and small amphibians.

The suborder Proteidea includes one Proteaceae family - Proteidae with two species of neotenic larvae of probably some extinct salamanders.

Tritonchik, photo photography
Tritonchik, photo photography

The suborder Salamandroidea unites three families. Real salamanders have well-developed eyelids; opisthocele vertebrae; in adults, the lungs function, the external gills are reduced, the gill slits are overgrown; fertilization is internal. Distributed in Europe, Asia, North Africa and North America. The family of lungless salamanders - Plethodontidae - is the largest in the order. They are characterized by a reduction in the lungs and loss of the pulmonary circulation, accompanied by an underdevelopment of the septum between the atria. The vertebrae are opisthocoelous, in a few - amphitic. Most of the species are native to North America, few penetrate into South America. Only two species of cave salamanders are found in the mountainous regions of southern Europe.

Currently, about 300 known species of tailed amphibians are usually grouped into 53 genera, 8 families and 4 suborders (Cryptobranchoidea, Meantes, Ambystomatoidea, Salamandroidea).

Systematics of the order Tailed amphibians (Caudata):

  • Suborder / Suborder: Cryptobranchoidea Dunn, 1922 = Hibernation

    • Family: Cryptobranchidae Fitzinger, 1825 = Hidden gabers

      • Genus: Andrias =

        Species: Andrias japonicus Temminck, 1837 = Japanese giant salamander

    • Family: Hynobiidae Cope, 1859 = Salamis

      • Subfamily: Hynobiinae Cope, 1859 =

        • Genus: Batrachuperus = Alpine salamanders
        • Genus: Hynobius Tschudi, 1838 = Salamis
        • Genus: Liua Zhao et Hu = Sichuan (Chinese) frogtooth
        • Genus: Onychodactylus Tschudi, 1838 = Far Eastern newts, or lungless
        • Genus: Pachyhynobius Fei, Qu et Wu = Stocky salamanders
        • Genus: Paradactylodon Risch = Elbur Salamis
        • Genus: Pseudohynobius =
        • Genus: Ranodon Kessler, 1866 = Frogtooth
        • Genus: Salamandrella Dybowski, 1870 = Siberian salamanders
      • Subfamily: Protohynobiinae Fei & Ye, 2000 =

        Genus: Protohynobius = Predusters

  • Suborder / Suborder: Salamandroidea Dunn, 1922 = Salamander

    • Family: Ambystomatidae Hallowell, 1856 = Ambistomas, or Ambistomaceae

      • Genus: Ambystoma = Ambistoma

        • Species: Ambystoma cingulatum Cope, 1868 = Mesh ambistoma
        • Species: Ambystoma laterale Hallowell, 1856 = Spotted blue ambistoma
        • Species: Ambystoma mexicanum Shaw & Nodder, 1798 = Mexican ambistoma
        • Species: Ambystoma opacum Gravenhorst, 1807 = Marble Ambistoma
        • Species: Ambystoma texanum Matthes, 1855 = Short-headed Ambistoma
        • Species: Ambystoma tigrinum Green, 1825 = Tiger ambistoma
    • Family: Amphiumidae Gray, 1825 = Amphium, amphium

      • Genus: Amphiuma Garden in Smith, 1821 = Amphiums

        Species: Amphiuma means Garden in Smith, 1821 = Eel Amphium

    • Family: Plethodontidae Gray, 1850 = Pulmonary salamanders

      • Subfamily: Bolitoglossinae Hallowell, 1856 =
      • Subfamily: Hemidactyliinae Hallowell, 1856 =
      • Subfamily: Plethodontinae Gray, 1850 =

        Genus: Plethodon Tschudi, 1838 = Forest Salamanders

      • Subfamily: Spelerpinae Cope, 1859 =

        • Genus: Eurycea = Brook Salamanders
        • Genus: Proteus Laurenti, 1768 = Proteus
        • Genus: Pseudotriton = False Tritons
    • Family: Proteidae Gray, 1825 = Proteus

      • Genus: Necturus Rafinesque, 1819 = American Proteus

        Species: Necturus maculosus Rafinesque, 1818 = Spotted Proteus

    • Family: Rhyacotritonidae Tihen, 1958 =
    • Family: Salamandridae Goldfuss, 1820 = True Salamanders

      • Subfamily: Pleurodelinae Tschudi, 1838 =

        • Tribe: Molgini =
        • Tribe: Pleurodelini =
      • Subfamily: Salamandrinae Goldfuss, 1820 =

        • Tribe: Chioglossini =
        • Tribe: Salamandrini =
      • Subfamily: Salamandrininae Fitzinger, 1843 =

        • Genus: Archaeotriton =
        • Genus: Salamandrina Fitzinger = Spectacled Salamanders
  • Suborder / Suborder: Sirenoidea Dubois, 2005 = Lilac

    • Family: Sirenidae Gray, 1825 = Siren, sirens

      • Genus: Siren Österdam, 1766 = Sirens

        View: Siren intermedia Barnes, 1826 = Pygmy Siren


1. Keys to amphibians and reptiles of the fauna of the USSR. Textbook. manual for students of biol. specialties ped. in-tov. M., "Education", 1977.415 p. with ill.; 16 l. silt

2. N. P. Naumov, N. N. Kartashev. Zoology of vertebrates. Inferior chordates, jawless, fish, amphibians. Moscow "Higher School", 1979

3. A. G. Bannikov, I. S. Darevsky, A. K. Rustamov. Amphibians and reptiles of the USSR. Publishing house "Mysl", Moscow, 1971