Salamis (Hynobiidae)

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Salamis (Hynobiidae)
Salamis (Hynobiidae)

Video: Salamis (Hynobiidae)

Video: Salamis (Hynobiidae)
Video: Battle of Salamis 480 BC (Persian Invasion of Greece) DOCUMENTARY 2023, November

The salamander family unites up to 36 primitive species of tailed amphibians ( 8-20 cm long), distributed mainly in East Asia and Russia. The genus Hynobius is the most numerous, represented by 16-18 species. There is no renal arch; there is a lacrimal bone. The eyelids are mobile. The skin is smooth. There are numerous transverse grooves on the sides of the trunk, dividing it into outer segments. In some members of the family, the lungs are partially or completely reduced. The soles of the feet may be keratinized, and the toes of some species are equipped with claws.

Outwardly, salamanders are similar to newts with a powerful tail. Most often, salamanders have a discreet monochromatic color, so in nature they are rather difficult to notice. Some species of salamanders live permanently in water, while others come to water bodies only for breeding.

Hokkaida salamander (Hynobius retardatus), photo photograph of tailed amphibians
Hokkaida salamander (Hynobius retardatus), photo photograph of tailed amphibians

Hokkaid salamander (Hynobius retardatus)

Fertilization in the toothed frog is external and occurs in a very peculiar way. Males glue the spermatophores to the underside of a stone in the water, or to the branches of bushes in the water. The spermatophore is a lump of 5-6 mm in diameter, sometimes up to 40 mm in length. Males attract females with games, and the female soon attaches a slimy sac with eggs to the base of the spermatophore (filled with spermatozoa). The mucous substrate at the junction of the spermatophore with the egg sac serves as the medium through which the spermatozoa that fertilize the eggs descend from the spermatophore.

Salamanders (in particular Siberian), due to their high resistance to low temperatures, are adapted to life in the permafrost zone. In the experiment, young salamanders tolerated hypothermia down to -6 ° C. it is especially important that at 2-4 ° С above zero and even at 0 ° С, salamanders remain active and able to move.

Most salamanders live in clear mountain streams, which are characterized by low temperatures. Therefore, an increase in water temperature to 20 ° C is already fatal for them. Frogtooths overwinter in non-freezing springs under stones or under a cover of moss at the bottom.

Activity is mainly daytime, and salamanders are preyed by amphipods, kivsaki, millipedes, small mollusks, insect larvae (dipterans, beetles) and other aquatic and semi-aquatic invertebrates.

Korean clawed newt (Onychodactylus koreanus), photo photograph tailed amphibians
Korean clawed newt (Onychodactylus koreanus), photo photograph tailed amphibians

Korean clawed newt. Photo © Todd Pierson

Earlier, probably, the Salamis family had a continuous range from Central Asia to Taiwan, inclusive. At present, the majority of salamander species are widespread in the highlands of Central and East Asia, therefore, almost nothing is known about their biology and lifestyle. It is believed that salamanders are one of the most cold-tolerant amphibians. From the Komi Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the Northern Urals to Kamchatka, Sakhalin and Northeast China, the Siberian salamander (Hynobius keyserlingi) lives on the wooded shores of water bodies. Apparently, all life, excluding the time of reproduction, takes place on land. Caviar is enclosed in sausage-like transparent bags about 15 cm long. The total length of adults is up to 13 cm. The color is gray-brown or brownish-gray with small black spots. There is no special wedding dress.

Along the mountain streams of the Dzungarian Alatau (Tien Shan), there is a Semirechensky frogtooth (Ranodon sibiricus). Some species of salamanders live in the mountains, while others are common in Japan and neighboring islands. The fauna of Russia is inhabited by 2 species of salamanders belonging to two genera, in the CIS countries there are 4 species. There are two species of salamanders in Iran: the Hyrcanian (Batrachuperus persicus) and the Elburssian (Batrachuperus gorganensis).

Taxonomy of the Salamis family (Hynobiidae):

  • Subfamily: Hynobiinae Cope, 1859 =

    • Genus: Batrachuperus = Alpine salamanders

      • Species: Batrachuperus longdongensis = Great salamander
      • Species: Batrachuperus mustersi = Afghan salamander
    • Genus: Hynobius Tschudi, 1838 = Salamis

      Species: Hynobius turkestanicus Nik., 1909 = Turkestan salamander

    • Genus: Liua Zhao et Hu = Sichuan (Chinese) frogtooth
    • Genus: Onychodactylus Tschudi, 1838 = Far Eastern newts, or lungless

      Species: Onychodactylus fischeri Boulenger, 1886 = Ussuri clawed newt, or lungless

    • Genus: Pachyhynobius Fei, Qu et Wu = Stocky salamanders
    • Genus: Paradactylodon Risch = Elbur Salamis
    • Genus: Pseudohynobius =
    • Genus: Ranodon Kessler, 1866 = Frogtooth

      Species: Ranodon sibiricus Kessler, 1866 = Semirechensky frogtooth

    • Genus: Salamandrella Dybowski, 1870 = Siberian salamanders

      Species: Salamandrella keyserlingii Dybowski, 1870 = Siberian salamander

  • Subfamily: Protohynobiinae Fei & Ye, 2000 =

    Genus: Protohynobius = Predusters


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