Tailless Amphibians, Or Amphibians (Anura)

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Tailless Amphibians, Or Amphibians (Anura)
Tailless Amphibians, Or Amphibians (Anura)
Anonim

Despite the large number of species - about 2100, the general appearance and structure of tailless amphibians are of the same type: the neck is not expressed, the wide head imperceptibly passes into a short, slightly flattened body; adults have no tail; the hind limbs are 2-3 times longer than the front ones, have an additional section - the tarsus. This structure provides jumping movement. The hind limbs appear first in larvae. The frontal and parietal bones are fused. The ilium is elongated into a long process. The caudal vertebrae are fused into one long bone (urostyle). The tympanic cavity and the eardrum are present.

Copepod frog (Rhacophorus reinwardti), photo tailless amphibians, photo amphibians
Copepod frog (Rhacophorus reinwardti), photo tailless amphibians, photo amphibians

Copepod frog (Rhacophorus reinwardti). Photography - shop "Nature", St. Petersburg

Fertilization is external, eggs are laid in water (with the exception of certain species that are not found in our country). The clutch of eggs looks like a lump (frog, tree frog) or cords (toad, garlic); in toads, eggs are collected in small groups. Larvae are tadpoles that quickly transform (metamorphose) into the adult stage, leaving the reservoir.

The most primitive tailless (suborder Amphicoela) have biconcave (amphitic) fish-type vertebrae, have short ribs, and retain the rudiments of the tail muscles.

Representatives of the Opisthocoela suborder have opisthocoelous vertebrae (convex in front, concave in back), short ribs, and a small tongue. The mucus secreted by the cutaneous glands of toads contains the poisonous secretion of phrinolecin, which causes an acute burning sensation when it comes into contact with the oral mucosa. The combination of a poisonous secret with a warning coloration leads to the fact that predators usually do not touch toads.

Green Mantella (Mantella viridis), photo photograph of a frog
Green Mantella (Mantella viridis), photo photograph of a frog

Green Mantella (Mantella viridis)

Garlic insects, which are representatives of the suborder Anotnocoela, are common in Asia, Europe and North America. No ribs; vertebrae are often procelial (concave in front, convex in back). They lead a terrestrial twilight and nocturnal lifestyle, hiding in burrows during the day, which they dig in soft soil, under stones and in other shelters. Species of the suborder Procoela are characterized by procelial vertebrae and complete reduction of ribs.

Caucasian cross (Pelodytes caucasicus), photo photograph of an amphibian
Caucasian cross (Pelodytes caucasicus), photo photograph of an amphibian

Caucasian cross (Pelodytes caucasicus). Photo by Mücahit ÇAKMAK

Toads (Bufonidae) are distributed throughout the world, except for the circumpolar regions, and unites about 650 species. They feed mainly on flying insects; large individuals also grab small vertebrates: juveniles of fish, small frogs and tadpoles, young snakes and even chicks of near-water birds and small mouse-like rodents. About 400 species of copepod frogs (Rhacophoridae) are common in the tropics of Asia and Africa. Most are arboreal. In species of the genus copepod frogs - Rhacophorus, membranes are well developed between the fingers of the front and hind limbs. Jumping from branch to branch, this frog spreads its fingers as much as possible, flattens its body and plans; sometimes jumps up to 10-12 m long were noted.

Red-backed false toad (Pseudophryne coriacea), photo tailless amphibians, photo amphibians
Red-backed false toad (Pseudophryne coriacea), photo tailless amphibians, photo amphibians

Red-backed false toad (Pseudophryne coriacea)

The order Tailless amphibians is divided into 5 suborders, uniting 10 families. At present, about 2000 species in 256 genera are known. The division into suborders (Amphicoela, Opisthocoela, Anomocoela, Procoela, Diplasiocoela) is based on the peculiarities of the articulation of the vertebrae in the trunk.

Taxonomy of the order Tailless amphibians (Anura):

Family: Brachycephalidae Günther = Short-headed, short-headed

Family: Bufonidae Gray, 1825 = (Real) toads

Family: Centrolenidae Taylor = Glass frogs

Family: Dendrobatidae Cobollops, 1865 = Birch

tongues

family: Heleophrynidae Noble = frog ghost

family: Hemisidae Cope = frog-pigs

family: Hylidae Gray, 1825 = tree frogs, tree frogs

family: Hyperoliidae Laurent = jumper

Occupation: Acanthixalus Laurent = prickly drevesnitsy

View: Acanthixalus spinosus = African prickly drevesnitsa

Rod: Afrixalus Laurent = Bananas

Genus: Callixalus Laurent = Colored Jumpers

Family: Leiopelmatidae Mivart, 1869 = Smooth Legged

Family: Leptodactylidae Werner, 1896 = Whistlers

Genus: Ceratophrys Wied-Neuwied, 1824 = Slingshots, Horned Frogs, Ethan orn

Species: Ceataratoph [slingshot]

family: Microhylidae Günther = microhylidae, mikrokvakshi

family: myobatrachidae Schlegel, 1850 = myobatrachidae

Occupation: Rheobatrachus Liem, 1973 = caring frog gastric-brooding frog

View: Rheobatrachus silus Liem, 1973 = Conky gastric-brooding frog, caring frog

family: Pelobatidae Bonaparte, 1850 = Garlids

Family: Pelodytidae Bonaparte = Crosses

Family: Pipidae Gray, 1825 = Pipes

Family: Pseudidae Fitzinger = Psevdisy

Family: Ranidae Gray, 1825 = (Real) of the frog

family: Rhacophoridae Hoffman, 1932 = rhacophoridae

family: Rhinodermatidae Duméril et Bibron, 1841 = rhinodermatidae

family: Mantellidae Boulenger = Mantella

Genus: Mantella = Mantella

View: Mantella bernhardi = Bernhard's Mantella

Kind: Mantella betsileo = Bronze Mantella

Kind: Mantella laevigata = Arboreal Mantella

Kind: Mantella crocea = Yellow Mantella

Kind: Mantella viridis = Green Mantella

Kind: Mantella aurantiaca = Golden Mantella

Kind: Mantella pulchra =

Mantella bar = Mantella variegated

Species: Mantella expectata = Mantella blue-footed

View: Mantella haraldmeieri = Mantell Haroldmeira

Family: Bombinatoridae Gray, 1825 = Bombinovye

Genus: Bombina Oken = Bombina

View: Bombina maxima = Bombina large

type: Bombina orientalis = Bombina Far

View: Bombina variegata = Bombina zheltobryuhaya

View: Bombina bombina = Bombina krasnobryuhaya

family: Rhinophrynidae Günther = Nosed toads

Family: Sooglossidae Noble, 1931 = Seychelles frogs

Literature:

1. Keys to amphibians and reptiles of the fauna of the USSR. Textbook. manual for students of biol. specialties ped. in-tov. M., "Education", 1977.415 p. with ill.; 16 l. silt

2. N.P. Naumov, N.N. Kartashev. Zoology of vertebrates. Inferior chordates, jawless, fish, amphibians. Moscow "High School", 1979

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