Tree Frogs, Or Tree Frogs (Hylidae)

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Tree Frogs, Or Tree Frogs (Hylidae)
Tree Frogs, Or Tree Frogs (Hylidae)

Video: Tree Frogs, Or Tree Frogs (Hylidae)

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Video: Квакша (Hyla arborea) - European tree frog | Film Studio Aves 2023, January
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Over 400 species of tree frogs, found in warm regions of all continents, are united by the tree frog family. One of the largest and most diverse families of tailless amphibians. Breeds in Europe, Southwest and Southeast Asia, North Africa, Australia and adjacent islands, South and North America. Body sizes in the tropics vary from 17 to 140 mm.

Short-striped tree frog (Hyloscirtus colymba), photo photograph of an amphibian
Short-striped tree frog (Hyloscirtus colymba), photo photograph of an amphibian

Short-striped tree frog (Hyloscirtus colymba)

The terminal phalanges of the tree frogs have intercalated cartilage and are usually expanded into discs. Tree frogs are able to climb trees and move on a flat vertical surface, such as window glass. The transverse processes of the sacral vertebra are flattened. The pupil of the eye is horizontal. The skin is smooth. Clutch of caviar in the form of dense lumps. The pre-sternum and sternum are cartilaginous. Teeth only on the upper jaw. The chest belt is movable. No ribs. The tongue is oval in shape, attached only by the front part, so that it can be "thrown" far out of the mouth. This allows you to capture small prey without getting close to it. These frogs hunt, orienting themselves mainly with the help of perfectly developed vision. In addition, tree frogs have well-developed hearing and vocal abilities.

Variable tree frog (Hyla versicolor), photo photograph tailless amphibians
Variable tree frog (Hyla versicolor), photo photograph tailless amphibians

Variable tree frog (Hyla versicolor)

The vast majority of amphibians belonging to this family have widened discs at the ends of the fingers, which contribute to the adhesion of the animal when moving along vertical planes. These discs are rich in lymphatic spaces and mucous glands. The less air between the substrate and the disc, the stronger the attachment to the substrate. Special muscles enable the discs to become flatter and more tightly pressed against the surface on which the animal moves. Usually attachment to the substrate is also due to the skin of the belly and throat.

Crowned tree frog (Anotheca spinosa), photo photograph of an amphibian
Crowned tree frog (Anotheca spinosa), photo photograph of an amphibian

Crowned tree frog (Anotheca spinosa)

The genus Hyla, the most extensive in the number of species of all genera in the class of amphibians, belongs to this family. It unites the tree frog proper, or arboreal trees, belonging to 350 different species of a wide variety of sizes - from 17 to 135 mm. Its representatives are common in all parts of the world, except for tropical Asia and Africa. Tree frogs are especially numerous in South America and Australia.

Ptychohyla hypomykter, photo photograph of an amphibian
Ptychohyla hypomykter, photo photograph of an amphibian

Ptychohyla hypomykter

In many species, care for the offspring is expressed to one degree or another. Some, like the South American tree frog - blacksmith - Hyla faber, in shallow water build an annular shaft of silt, inside which they lay eggs. South American phyllomedusa - Phyllomedusa spawns in leaves on trees above water bodies. In females of marsupial tree frogs - Gastrotheca and some other species, folds of skin on the back form a brood pouch in which eggs are hatched.

Of all the tailless amphibians, tree frogs are the most mobile and have the most beautiful color. Some of their species are kept in the house as decorative animals. All tree tree species are partially arboreal.

Desert Litoria (Litoria rubella), photo photography amphibians
Desert Litoria (Litoria rubella), photo photography amphibians

Desert Litoria (Litoria rubella)

More than 720 species are known, grouped into 39 genera and 4 subfamilies. In the fauna of Russia and neighboring countries, there is only one subfamily, one genus and 2 species [1] [2]. The family has been known in fossil form since the Miocene (Hyla in Europe).

Taxonomy of the tree frogs family, tree frogs (Hylidae):

  • Subfamily: Hylinae Rafinesque, 1815 =

    • Tribe: Cophomantini Hoffmann, 1878 =

      • Genus: Aplastodiscus Lutz A. = Thin-toed tree frogs
      • Genus: Bokermannohyla =
      • Genus: Hyloscirtus =
      • Genus: Hypsiboas =
      • Genus: Myersiohyla =
    • Tribe: Dendropsophini Fitzinger, 1843 =

      • Genus: Dendropsophus =
      • Genus: Pseudis =
      • Genus: Scarthyla =
      • Genus: Scinax =
      • Genus: Sphaenorhynchus Tschudi = Wedgeheads
      • Genus: Xenohyla =
    • Tribe: Hylini Rafinesque, 1815 =

      • Genus: Acris Duméril et Bibron = Cricket tree frogs

        • Species: Acris crepitans = Clicking tree frog
        • Species: Acris gryllus = Cricket tree frog
      • Genus: Anotheca Smith H. = Ghost frogs
      • Genus: Bromeliohyla =
      • Genus: Charadrahyla =
      • Genus: Duellmanohyla =
      • Genus: Ecnomiohyla =
      • Genus: Exerodonta =
      • Genus: Hyla Laurenti, 1768 = Tree Frog

        • Species: Hyla arborea Linnaeus, 1758 = Common tree frog
        • Species: Hyla avivoca Viosca, 1928 = Bird-voiced tree frog
        • Species: Hyla chinensis Günther, 1858 = Chinese tree frog
        • Species: Hyla chrysoscelis Cope, 1880 = Gray tree frog
        • Species: Hyla cinerea = green tree frog, or shepherd
        • Species: Hyla gratiosa LeConte, 1856 = Barking tree frog, or slender
        • Species: Hyla japonica Gunther, 1858 = Far Eastern tree frog
        • Species: Hyla leucophyllata = Clown frog
        • Species: Hyla savignyi Audouin, 1827 = Asia Minor tree frog
        • Species: Hyla versicolor LeConte, 1825 = Variable tree frog
      • Genus: Isthmohyla =
      • Genus: Megastomatohyla =
      • Genus: Plectrohyla Brocchi = Kaskheads
      • Genus: Pseudacris Fitzinger, 1843 = Marsh [singing] tree frogs

        Species: Pseudacris regilla Baird & Girard, 1852 = Royal tree frog

      • Genus: Ptychohyla Taylor = Glandular tree frogs
      • Genus: Smilisca Cope = Smilisks
      • Genus: Tlalocohyla =
      • Genus: Triprion Cope, 1865 = Helmet tree frogs, tryprions
    • Tribe: Lophiohylini Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926 =

      • Genus: Aparasphenodon Miranda-Ribeiro = Ridgeheads
      • Genus: Argenteohyla Trueb = Cascading tree frogs
      • Genus: Corythomantis Boulenger = Shield-headed tree frogs
      • Genus: Itapotihyla =
      • Genus: Nyctimantis Boulenger = Hollow tree frogs
      • Genus: Osteocephalus Steindachner = Boneheads
      • Genus: Osteopilus Fitzinger = West Indian tree frogs

        Species: Osteopilus septentrionalis = Cuban tree frog

      • Genus: Phyllodytes Wagler = Leaflets
      • Genus: Phytotriades =
      • Genus: Tepuihyla =
      • Genus: Trachycephalus Tschudi = Shellhead
  • Subfamily: Pelodryadinae Günther, 1858 =

    • Genus: Litoria Tschudi, 1838 = Australian tree frogs

      • Species: Litoria caerulea White, 1790 = Coral-toed littoria
      • Species: Litoria rubella Gray, 1842 = Desert Litoria
    • Genus: Nyctimystes Stejneger = Retina eyes
  • Subfamily: Phyllomedusinae Günther, 1858 =

    • Genus: Agalychnis Cope, 1864 = Bright-eyed tree frogs

      Species: Agalychnis callidryas Cope, 1862 = Red-eyed tree frog

    • Genus: Cruziohyla =
    • Genus: Phasmahyla =
    • Genus: Phrynomedusa =
    • Genus: Phyllomedusa Wagler = Phyllomedusa

Literature

1. NP Naumov, NN Kartashev. Zoology of vertebrates. Inferior chordates, jawless, fish, amphibians. Moscow "Higher school", 1979

2. Keys to amphibians and reptiles of the fauna of the USSR. Textbook. manual for students of biol. specialties ped. in-tov. M., "Education", 1977.415 p. with ill.; 16 l. silt

3. Fauna of Moldova: Fish, amphibians, reptiles. Academy of Sciences of the MSSR. Ed. THEM. Ghani. Chisinau, Shtiintsa, 1981

4. Orlova VF, Semenov DV. Nature of Russia: the life of animals. Amphibians and reptiles. - M.: Firm "ACT Publishing House", 1999. - 480 p.

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