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Video: Garlic (Pelobatidae)
Representatives of the Garlic family are widespread in Asia (here 2/3 of 50 species of the family), Europe and North America. Among the Asian garlic there are species that have adapted to living high in the mountains, there are amazing species with frightening outgrowths on the head.
Short-legged garlic (Brachytarsophrys carinense)
The physique is dense, toad-like, but the skin is smooth or slightly lumpy. No ribs; vertebrae are often procelial (concave in front, convex in back). Bone sternum. There is no eardrum. Most garlic women are nocturnal, so their pupils are vertical. Swimming membranes between the toes of the hind feet are well developed. The inner calcaneal tubercle is very large, spatulate. There are no resonators. They also do not have glands on the head characteristic of toads - parotid. Teeth only on the upper jaw.
Horned-nosed garlic (Megophrys nasuta). Photography - shop "Nature", St. Petersburg
They lead a terrestrial twilight and nocturnal lifestyle, hiding in burrows during the day, which they dig in soft soil, under stones and in other shelters. Some species are associated with arid habitats, their larvae are characterized by extremely rapid development. At times they give off a strong odor, reminiscent of garlic.
In most of the European regions of Russia and the south of Western Siberia, there is a garlic - Pelobates fuscus; the calcaneal tubercle in the form of a powerful horny plate facilitates digging. The garlic buries itself in soft soil in 3-5 minutes.
Small-mouthed garlic (Ophryophryne hansi)
In March - early May, during the spawning period, it comes to water bodies, where it remains until the end of April-May. Mating takes place underwater. The clutch of caviar is sausage. The larvae can hang vertically in the water by means of their oral fields, holding on to the surface tension film. The tadpoles can be up to 175 mm long.
Kalimantan Garlic (Leptobrachium montanum)
Garlic, apparently, originated in the Tertiary time in South Asia, where the most primitive genus Megophrys is still found. They could have entered Europe not earlier than the Oligocene. The family unites 9 genera and 92 species, of which one genus and two species are represented in the fauna of Russia. Our species have a rather large head, stocky body, relatively short hind limbs, distantly resembling toads.
Sarawak Garlic (Leptobrachella mjobergi)
Systematics of the Garlic family (Pelobatidae):
Genus: Pelobates Wagler, 1830 = Garlic
- Species: Pelobates fuscus Laurenti, 1768 = Common garlic
- Species: Pelobates syriacus Boett., 1889 = Syrian garlic