Table of contents:
- The size
- Nutrition / food
- Season / period of breeding
- Population / conservation status
Video: Mongolian Toad (Bufo Raddei)
Mongolian toad, or Siberian sand toad, or Reid's toad (Bufo raddei) inhabits the borders of coniferous and deciduous forests, groves, shrubs, various types of meadows, forest-steppe and steppe with sandy, stony and alluvial soils. It is found in both dry and wet biotopes. Ants make up a significant portion of food. In spring it is active during the day, in summer - day and night. Winters on land. Reproduction takes place in lakes and ponds with stagnant water.
The extreme south of the Irkutsk region, South Buryatia, the south of the Chita and Amur regions, the Khabarovsk Territory, the west and south of the Primorsky Territory. Mongolia, Korea, North China, Tibet, Northeast Pakistan. In Transbaikalia, it occurs no higher than 1000 m above sea level, in Mongolia - up to 1800 m, very rarely higher; in Tibet inhabits up to 4000 m.
Article on the topic The content of the Mongolian toad (Bufo raddei)
The body of the Mongolian toad is heavy and awkward. Relatively short, thick hind legs and broad, flattened head. The ends of the toes of the hind feet are not connected by a membrane. Hind toes with paired articulated tubercles. The end of the 4th toe of the front foot does not reach the 1st articulation of the 3rd toe of the front foot. The inner edge of the tarsus with a longitudinal skin fold. The parot glands in the toad are located behind the eyes. The eye pupil is horizontal. The skin on top with a scattering of small tubercles, and rough below.
It differs from the green toad in a light stripe on the back, less bumpy skin and the presence of a large gland on the lower leg. The male differs from the female by the presence of a resonator, nuptial calluses on the 1st toe of the front foot, smaller body sizes and body proportions.
The skin of the back is light olive, greenish-gray or gray with large dark spots and a light dorsomedial stripe, sometimes with rare red dots. The belly is light gray with few dark spots.
Females grow up to 5 cm, males up to 8 cm.
Inhabits borders of coniferous and deciduous forests, groves, shrubs, various types of meadows, forest-steppe and steppes with sandy, stony and alluvial soils. The Mongolian toad is found both in dry and wet biotopes. Even in the steppe regions it can be found not only near water bodies (rivers, ponds, lakes, etc.), but also at a considerable distance from the water.
Nutrition / food
Ants make up a significant portion of food. The food spectrum can vary, and the diet can also include beetles, hymenoptera, caterpillars and other insects. The Mongolian toad can eat up to 12 large caterpillars at one time. Tadpoles feed on algae and detritus. Young toads eat ticks and small insects.
In spring, the Mongolian toad is active during the day, in summer - day and night. During the day, the toad hides under stones, in the holes of rodents, buries itself in the sand. It hibernates in September-October. For wintering, it digs very deep (1-2 m deep) burrows. Winters on land. The peak of daily activity occurs at 21: 00-24: 00. Prefers to stay in shallow water. Twilight activity is observed during and after breeding.
Occurs in lakes and stagnant ponds. Laying in the form of roe cords up to 6 m long, attached to underwater objects. Axillary amplexus. Fecundity of females is 1000-4000 eggs. Cords with caviar attach to plants in fairly deep waters.
Season / period of breeding
Breeding from April to July, peak in May. Spawning begins 2-3 days after leaving wintering.
Immediately after hatching, the tadpoles hang for a short time on the remains of eggs, clinging with their mouths. Then they concentrate near the shores of water bodies, forming accumulations at the bottom. Metamorphosis at the end of June - August. Spawning in shallow water bodies leads to a high mortality rate of tadpoles from drying out. Hind limbs appear in tadpoles in the first decade of June. The emergence of underyearlings on land was recorded at the end of the first decade of July. In some cases, tadpoles hibernate, finishing development in the next season.
Population / conservation status
There is no threat of extinction of the species.