Table of contents:
- The size
- Nutrition / food
- Social structure
- Season / period of breeding
- Benefit / harm to humans
Video: Malayan Toad (Duttaphrynus Melanostictus)
The black scarlet malay toad, or black-backed toad, or Indian toad, or spiny Asian toad, is native to Southeast Asia, where it is found in agricultural areas, as well as on roadsides and lawns. Less common in the forest. The singing of males is very melodic and resembles bird chirping. During the day, it hides in various shelters, and after sunset, it slowly leaves its homes and goes hunting.
Malay black cicatrix toad (Bufo melanostictus).
Photography - shop "Nature", St. Petersburg
Southeast Asia: China, India, Vietnam and Laos. In the Himalayas, toads rise to a height of more than 3000 m. In the middle of the twentieth century, the Malay toad was introduced to about. Bali, where the toad took root well and multiplied quickly.
The head ridges and horny spines on the warts are black. The belly is lighter, monochromatic or with darker spots. In 2001, a subspecies was found in Pakistan - Bufo melanostictus hazarensis. Females of this subspecies are the largest of all toads inhabiting Pakistan (they reach a length of up to 15 cm).
The upper side of the toad's body is colored from light yellow-brown to black-brown. In males, the throat is colored pale yellow with a mustard tint, and in females it is orange.
Related article Content of the Malay Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus)
Adult toads range in size from 6 to 10 cm.
The singing is very melodic and sounds like a bird chirping.
The Malay toad prefers cultivated areas (gardens, parks, plantations), roadsides, lawns. Less common in the forest.
Malay Toad (Bufo melanostictus). © Photo Vasiliy Latyshev
The enemies include snakes, birds, large amphibians.
Nutrition / food
The Malay toad eats ants, termites, as well as various beetles and land molluscs. The forage is collected from the soil surface.
During the day, it hides in holes, heaps of fallen leaves, under pieces of bark, in placers of stones, and after sunset, it slowly leaves its homes and goes hunting. It hunts sitting in one place, waiting for the victim. When the Malay toad senses movement, it suddenly throws out its tongue.
Outside of the breeding season, the Malay toad is mostly solitary. They can gather together (several individuals) in secret places to wait out the daytime.
It gathers around any places where there is at least a little water left after the first showers. Males try to climb some kind of elevation (stone, hummock or snag), from where their cry is heard far away. With a shortage of such "stands" between the males, fierce fights begin, and the rivals shamelessly push each other off the heights. Opponents strive to grab a comfortable snag, pushing its owner with their muzzle and pushing back from other applicants with their hind legs.
Season / period of breeding
The Malay toad breeds throughout the year, but reaches its greatest breeding activity in November - December, at the beginning of the monsoon season.
It occurs when the amphibian reaches a size of 9 cm.
Lasts for several days. The tadpoles feed on green algae. Metamorphosis occurs in a month.
Females lay about 1000 eggs, attaching them to aquatic plants. Tadpoles length 26-27 mm, tail 19-20 mm. Tadpoles are dark in color, keep near the shores of water bodies, feed on a variety of algae.
Benefit / harm to humans
The Malay toad eats harmful insects.