Squaliformes

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Squaliformes
Squaliformes

Video: Squaliformes

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Video: The World's Smallest Sharks 2023, February
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Order Katraniform - about two dozen species of spiny sharks (there is a sharp horny spine in front of each dorsal fin) having a length of up to 1, rarely up to 2 m.The body is cylindrical, slightly compressed laterally or sometimes dorsoanally. The head is conical or low. Eyes without blinking membrane. Squirt are present, they are located behind the eyes. The branchial openings are five pairs. The vertebrae are cyclospondyl or tectospondyl. Chord with constrictions. The jaws are hyostyle. Some species are characteristic of coastal waters up to 200 m deep (Katran S qualus acanthias), others are found at a depth of 1 km and deeper. Feed onfish, crustaceans and various benthic invertebrates (sea cucumbers, worms). These fish can be found off the coast and in the open ocean, in the upper layers, water and at considerable depths, in cold and warm waters.

Dwarf glowing shark (Etmopterus perryi), photo photograph dangerous fish
Dwarf glowing shark (Etmopterus perryi), photo photograph dangerous fish

Dwarf glowing shark (Etmopterus perryi)

The katraniform sharks lack the anal fin and nictitating membrane, and have a spherula. Some lead a gregarious lifestyle. They serve as an object of fishing, sometimes cause significant damage to fishing: they eat fish in nets, break tackle. Catrans become sexually mature, reaching 1 m in length at the age of about 19 years. Ovoviviparous. The female in 6-7 months after fertilization (and in the Atlantic only after 18-22 months!) Spawns from 12 to 30 cubs 20-26 cm long. They live over 30 years.

Common cetrina (Oxynotus centrina), photo photograph of shark fish
Common cetrina (Oxynotus centrina), photo photograph of shark fish

Common cetrina (Oxynotus centrina). Photo © Oceana Europe

This also includes sharks that do not have thorns. In the North Atlantic, the polar shark Somniosus microcephalus, reaching 6.5 m in length and weighing about a ton, lives. In summer, it stays at great depths (up to 1 km), and in winter it rises to the surface layers. A gluttonous predator eating various fish and invertebrates, the corpses of whales and seals. In spring, at great depths, the female spawns up to 500 elliptical eggs in a soft shell, up to 8 cm in diameter.In warm waters, there are dwarf sharks (for example, Euprototnicrus bispinatus), not exceeding 20-25 cm in length.They live in the open ocean, rising at night to surface, and in the afternoon going into the depths. The entire lower surface of the body of these sharks is densely dotted with small luminescent organs - photophores (plaques with a diameter of 0.03-0.1 mm), emitting a pale green light when the fish is excited.They apparently feed on small cephalopods.

Representatives of one of the two families of the detachment are found in the waters of Russia.

Deep sea deania (Deania profundorum), picture drawing of a shark fish
Deep sea deania (Deania profundorum), picture drawing of a shark fish

Deep Sea Deania (Deania profundorum)

Taxonomy of the Katraniform squad:

  • Family: Centrophoridae Bleeker = Short-spiked sharks, or needle sharks

    • Genus: Centrophorus Muller et Henle = Short-thorn shark

      • Species: Centrophorus acus Garman, 1906 = Long short-thorn shark
      • Species: Centrophorus atromarginatus Garman, 1913 =
      • Species: Centrophorus granulosus Bloch et JG Schneider, 1801 = Brown short-thorn shark
      • Species: Centrophorus harrissoni McCulloch, 1915 = Australian short-thorn shark
      • Species: Centrophorus isodon YT Chu, QW Meng et JX Liu, 1981 =
      • Species: Centrophorus lusitanicus Bocage et Capello, 1864 = Portuguese short-thorn shark
      • Species: Centrophorus moluccensis Bleeker, 1860 = Short-finned shark
      • Species: Centrophorus niaukang Teng, 1959 =
      • Species: Centrophorus robustus SM Deng, GQ Xiong et HX Zhan, 1985 =
      • Species: Centrophorus seychellorum Baranes, 2003 =
      • Species: Centrophorus squamosus Bonnaterre, 1788 = Gray short-thorn shark
      • Species: Centrophorus tessellatus Garman, 1906 =
      • Species: Centrophorus westraliensis WT White, Ebert et Compagno, 2008 =
      • Species: Centrophorus zeehaani WT White, Ebert et Compagno, 2008 =
    • Genus: Deania Jordan et Snyder = Deanii, or long-snouted spiny sharks

      • Species: Deania calcea RT Lowe, 1839 = Long-nosed barbed shark
      • Species: Deania hystricosa Garman, 1906 = Prickly deenia
      • Species: Deania profundorum HM Smith & Radcliffe, 1912 = Deep Sea Deania or South African Barbed Shark
      • Species: Deania quadrispinosum McCulloch, 1915 = Long-nosed deania
  • Family: Dalatiidae Gray = Serpentine sharks, or sleeping sharks

    • Genus: Dalatias Rafinesque = Dalatian, or upright sharks

      Species: Dalatias licha Rafinesque, 1810 = Black Shark

    • Genus: Euprotomicroides Hulley et Penrith = Light Tail Sharks

      Species: Euprotomicroides zantedeschia Hulley & MJ Penrith, 1966 = Light-tailed shark

    • Genus: Euprotomicrus Gill = Dwarf Sharks

      Species: Euprotomicrus bispinatus Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 = Dwarf shark

    • Genus: Heteroscymnoides Fowler = Dwarf Spiny Shark

      Species: Heteroscymnoides marleyi Fowler, 1934 = Long-nosed dwarf prickly shark

    • Genus: Isistius Gill = Glowing Sharks

      • Species: Isistius brasiliensis Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 = Brazilian Glowing Shark
      • Species: Isistius labialis QW Meng, Zhu & S. Li, 1985 =
      • Species: Isistius plutodus Garrick & S. Springer, 1964 =
    • Genus: Mollisquama Dolganov = Malliskwams

      Species: Mollisquama parini Dolganov, 1984 = Malliskwama

    • Genus: Squaliolus Smith et Radcliffe = Dwarf Spiny Sharks

      • Species: Squaliolus aliae Teng, 1959 =
      • Species: Squaliolus laticaudus HM Smith & Radcliffe, 1912 = Dwarf Spiny Shark
  • Family: Echinorhinidae Gill = Star-spiked or plaque-spiked sharks

    • Genus: Echinorhinus Blainville, 1816 = Plaque-thorn shark

      • Species: Echinorhinus brucus Bonnaterre, 1788 = Plaque shark, or star-spiked shark, or alligator shark, or crocodile shark
      • Species: Echinorhinus cookei Pietschmann, 1928 = Pacific plaque thorn shark
  • Family: Etmopteridae Fowler = Lamp sharks, or glowing sharks

    • Genus: Aculeola Fernando de Buen y Lozano, 1959 = Shark

      Species: Aculeola nigra de Buen, 1959 = Black shark

    • Genus: Centroscyllium Muller et Henle = Black Dog Sharks

      • Species: Centroscyllium excelsum Shirai & Nakay, 1990 =
      • Species: Centroscyllium fabricii JCH Reinhardt, 1825 = Fabritius Black Dog Shark
      • Species: Centroscyllium granulatum Günther, 1887 =
      • Species: Centroscyllium kamoharai T. Abe, 1966 = Kamohara Black Dog Shark
      • Species: Centroscyllium nigrum Garman, 1899 = Black Dog Shark
      • Species: Centroscyllium ornatum Alcock, 1889 =
      • Species: Centroscyllium ritteri Jordan & Fowler, 1903 = Whitetip Dog Shark
    • Genus: Etmopterus Rafinesque, 1810 = Black sharks, or prickly sharks

      • Species: Etmopterus baxteri Garrick, 1957 = New Zealand Black Shark
      • Species: Etmopterus bigelowi Shirai & Tachikawa, 1993 =
      • Species: Etmopterus brachyurus Smith & Radcliffe, 1912 = Short-tailed black shark
      • Species: Etmopterus bullisi Bigelow & Schroeder, 1957 = Striped spiny shark
      • Species: Etmopterus burgessi Schaaf-Da Silva & Ebert, 2006 =
      • Species: Etmopterus carteri S. Springer & GH Burgess, 1985 =
      • Species: Etmopterus caudistigmus Last, GH Burgess & Séret, 2002 =
      • Species: Etmopterus compagnoi Fricke & I. Koch, 1990 =
      • Species: Etmopterus decacuspidatus WLY Chan, 1966 = Ridge-toothed black shark
      • Species: Etmopterus dianthus Last, GH Burgess & Séret, 2002 =
      • Species: Etmopterus dislineatus Last, GH Burgess & Séret, 2002 =
      • Species: Etmopterus gracilispinis G. Krefft, 1968 = Broad-striped black shark
      • Species: Etmopterus granulosus Günther, 1880 =
      • Etmopterus hillianus Poey, 1861 = Caribbean barbed shark
      • Species: Etmopterus joungi Knuckey, Ebert & GH Burgess, 2011 =
      • Species: Etmopterus litvinovi Parin & Kotlyar, 1990 =
      • Species: Etmopterus lucifer DS Jordan & Snyder, 1902 = Glowing Black Shark
      • Species: Etmopterus molleri Whitley, 1939 =
      • Species: Etmopterus perryi S. Springer & GH Burgess, 1985 =
      • Species: Etmopterus polli Bigelow, Schroeder & S. Springer, 1953 = African black shark
      • Species: Etmopterus princeps Collett, 1904 = Great black shark
      • Species: Etmopterus pseudosqualiolus Last, GH Buress & Séret, 2002 =
      • Species: Etmopterus pusillus RT Lowe, 1839 = Crow Shark
      • Species: Etmopterus pycnolepis Kotlyar, 1990 =
      • Species: Etmopterus robinsi Schofield & GH Burgess, 1997 =
      • Species: Etmopterus schultzi Bigelow, Schroeder & S. Springer, 1953 =
      • Species: Etmopterus sculptus Ebert, Compagno & De Vries, 2011 =
      • Species: Etmopterus sentosus Bass, D'Aubrey & Kistnasamy, 1976 = Horned Black Shark
      • Species: Etmopterus spinax Linnaeus, 1758 = Night shark, or Black spiny shark
      • Species: Etmopterus splendidus Yano, 1988 =
      • Species: Etmopterus tasmaniensis Myagkov & NA Pavlov, 1986 = Tasmanian etmopterus
      • Species: Etmopterus unicolor Engelhardt, 1912 =
      • Species: Etmopterus viator Straube, 2011 =
      • Species: Etmopterus villosus C. H. Gilbert, 1905 = Hawaiian black shark, or Hawaiian prickly shark
      • Species: Etmopterus virens Bigelow, Schroeder & S. Springer, 1953 = Green Spiny Shark
    • Genus: Miroscyllium Shirai et Nakaya =
    • Genus: Trigonognathus Mochizuki et Ohe =
  • Family: Oxynotidae Gill = Triangular sharks, centrin

    • Genus: Oxynotus Rafinesque = Triangular sharks, or centrino sharks

      Species: Oxynotus paradoxus Frade, 1929 = Shark

  • Family: Somniosidae Jordan = Smallmouth sharks, or upright sharks

    • Genus: Centroscymnus Barbosa du Bocage & Brito Capello, 1864 = White-eyed shark

      • Species: Centroscymnus coelolepis Barbosa du Bocage & Brito Capello, 1864 = White-eyed prickly shark, or Portuguese shark
      • Species: Centroscymnus cryptacanthus Regan, 1906 = Short-nosed white-eyed shark
      • Species: Centroscymnus macracanthus Regan, 1906 = Long-spiked velvet shark
      • Species: Centroscymnus owstoni Garman, 1906 = Ouston's white-eyed shark
    • Genus: Centroselachus Garman = Long-nosed velvet sharks?

      Species: Centroselachus crepidater Barbosa du Bocage et Brito Capello, 1864 = Long-nosed velvet shark

    • Genus: Proscymnodon Fowler = Corduroy Spiny Sharks

      Species: Proscymnodon plunketi Waite, 1910 = Planketa velveteen spiny shark

    • Genus: Scymnodalatias Garrick = Scimnodalatias
    • Genus: Scymnodon Bocage et Capello = Corduroy spiny sharks
    • Genus: Zameus Jordan et Fowler =
  • Family: Squalidae Blainville = Katran sharks, or prickly sharks, or upright sharks

    • Genus: Cirrhigaleus Tanaka = Whiskered spiny shark
    • Genus: Somniosus Lesueur, 1818 = Polar sharks

      • Species: Somniosus microcephalus Bloch et Schneider, 1801 = Greenland Arctic Shark
      • Species: Somniosus pacificus Bigelow et Schroeder, 1944 = Pacific polar shark
    • Genus: Squalus Linnaeus, 1758 = Katrana

      • Species: Squalus acanthias Linnaeus, 1758 = Common quatrain, prickly shark

        Subspecies: Squalus acanthias ponticus Myagkov et Kondjurin, 1986 = Black Sea Katran

      • Species: Squalus blainvillei = Lesser prickly shark
      • Species: Squalus brevirostris Tanaka, 1917 = Short-winged spiny shark
      • Squalus mitsukurii Jordan et Snyder, 1903 = Mitsukuri Spiny Shark

Literature:

1. Naumov NP, Kartashev NN Zoology of vertebrates. - Part 2. - Reptiles, birds, mammals: A textbook for a biologist. specialist. un-tov. -M.: Higher. school, 1979. - 272 p., ill.

2. Commercial fish of Russia. In two volumes / ed. O.F.Gritsenko, A.N. Kotlyar and B.N.Kotenyov.- Moscow: VNIRO publishing house. 2006. - 1280 s. (Volume 1 - 656 p.).

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