Saw-toothed Sharks, Or Carcharhiniformes

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Saw-toothed Sharks, Or Carcharhiniformes
Saw-toothed Sharks, Or Carcharhiniformes

Video: Saw-toothed Sharks, Or Carcharhiniformes

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Carharin-like, or Sawtooth, are a detachment of modern sharks, uniting about half of the living species. The order includes up to 150 species of small, medium and very large sharks, grouped into 7 families. The body is cylindrical, slightly compressed laterally or dorsoanally. The head is from conical to rather low or strongly flattened and has lateral outgrowths (family of hammerhead sharks Sphyrnidae). Two dorsal fins without spines in front of them. The anal fin is there. Gill slits 5 pairs. There are either the oronasal grooves, or the nictitating membrane or lower eyelid tab. The mouth is usually large, the teeth are of different shapes, the cavities of the teeth are filled with pulp. All sharks of the detachment are inhabitants of tropical and temperate waters of the World Ocean. Among them there are many species dangerous to humans.

Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezii), photo photograph of fish
Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezii), photo photograph of fish

Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezii)

These include the two largest species of living fish: the whale shark Rhincodon typus, reaching a length of up to 20 m (with a length of 11-12 m, it weighs 12-14 tons), and a giant shark - Cetorhinus maximus, up to 12-15 m long (with a length 9 m has a mass of 7 tons). The first is found singly in tropical, and the second - in groups of up to 20-30 individuals mainly in temperate waters. Both giants feed on planktonic crustaceans, molluscs and small schooling fish. Long stamens densely sit on the gill arches, blocking access to the gill slits and forming a filter apparatus.

Interesting facts about sharks
Interesting facts about sharks

Related article Interesting facts about sharks A shark attacking an accumulation of planktonic organisms slowly swims with an open mouth, passing water through the mouth and throwing it out through the gill slits (they are especially large in the giant shark); plankton is retained by the filter and swallowed. The teeth of these sharks are small, they serve not for grasping, but for "locking" prey in the mouth. The shark filters up to 1.5-2 thousand cubic meters of water per hour. In winter, giant sharks dive to great depths and stay at the bottom, apparently in a state similar to hibernation. The whale shark lays eggs (only one egg was found in a horn capsule 67 cm long and 40 cm in diameter; it contained a formed embryo); the giant shark is apparently ovoviviparous.

Tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), photo photograph of fish
Tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier), photo photograph of fish

Tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier)

The family of gray sharks, uniting up to 60 species, includes gray sharks (p. Carcharhinus) up to 3.6 m in length, common in the coastal waters of the tropical region; penetrate into the large rivers of Africa, Asia and South America, rising 200-300 km from the mouth; one species constantly lives and reproduces in the freshwater lake of Nicaragua (Central America). Omnivorous, attacks on people are marked. The larger (up to 5 meters or more) and mobile tiger shark (Galecerdo cuvieri) is one of the most dangerous species for humans; occurs in coastal areas and on the high seas. Peculiar hammerhead sharks are close to gray sharks. Their head is strongly flattened and has two large lateral outgrowths, on the outer edges of which the eyes are located, and somewhat departing from them there are large nostrils. 7 species of this family are up to 3-6 m long. They are fast, tireless and agile swimmers, found both in the open and in the coastal waters of the tropics. They feed on benthic and pelagic invertebrates, various fish, including large ones; there are known cases of attacks on people. Small (30 cm to 1.5 m long) feline and marten sharks also belong to sawtooth sharks. Several dozen of their species are found in coastal waters,few live at depths of 600-1500 m.

Reef shark (Triaenodon obesus), photo photograph dangerous fish
Reef shark (Triaenodon obesus), photo photograph dangerous fish

Reef shark (Triaenodon obesus)

Oviparous, ovoviviparous and viviparous forms are found among the order of the aphids. So, female cat sharks lay 2 to 20 eggs in horny capsules with long horny filaments. A female tiger shark gives birth to 30-50 cubs 45-50 cm long, and a female hammerhead shark gives birth to 30-40 cubs of the same length. Some species are used as objects of fishing or sport fishing.

Systematics of the order Carhariniformes:

  • Family: Carcharhinidae Jordan et Evermann = Gray Sharks

    • Genus: Carcharhinus Blainville, 1816 = Gray Shark
    • Genus: Galeocerdo Muller et Henle = Tiger Sharks
    • Genus: Glyphis Agassiz = Freshwater Gray Shark
    • Genus: Isogomphodon Gill = Shark Nosed Sharks
    • Genus: Lamiopsis Gill = Broadtip Shark
    • Genus: Loxodon Muller et Henle = Slap-eyed gray sharks
    • Genus: Nasolamia Compagno et Garrick = White-nosed Sharks
    • Genus: Negaprion Whitley = Razortooth Sharks
    • Genus: Prionace Cantor, 1849 = Blue Sharks
    • Genus: Rhizoprionodon Whitley = Long-snout shark
    • Genus: Scoliodon Muller et Henle, 1837 = Yellow pointed sharks
    • Genus: Triaenodon Müller and Henle, 1837 = Reef Sharks
  • Family: Hemigaleidae Hasse = Big-eyed sharks

    • Genus: Chaenogaleus TN Gill, 1862 = Big-eyed hook-toothed shark
    • Genus: Hemigaleus Blleker = Big-eyed shark
    • Genus: Hemipristis Agassiz = Indian gray shark
    • Genus: Paragaleus Budker = Striped Shark
  • Family: Leptochariidae Gray, 1851 = Whiskered Dog Shark

    Genus: Leptocharias Smith = Whiskered Dog Shark

  • Family: Proscylliidae Fowler = Striped Cat Sharks

    • Genus: Ctenacis Compagno = Harlequin Sharks
    • Genus: Eridacnis Smith = Ribbon Sharks
    • Genus: Gollum Compagno = New Zealand Triple Tooth Shark
    • Genus: Proscyllium Hilgendorf = Striped Cat Sharks
  • Family: Pseudotriakidae Gill = False shark

    Genus: Pseudotriakis Brito Capello, 1867 = Small-toothed sharks

  • Family: Scyliorhinidae Gill, 1862 = Cat sharks

    • Genus: Apristurus Garman, 1913 = Black Cat Sharks
    • Genus: Asymbolus Whitley, 1939 = Australian spotted cat sharks
    • Genus: Atelomycterus Garman, 1913 = Coral Cat Shark
    • Genus: Aulohalaelurus Fowler, 1934 = Lipped Cat Shark
    • Genus: Bythaelurus Compagno, 1988 = Spotted Shark
    • Genus: Cephaloscyllium TN Gill, 1862 = Big headed sharks
    • Genus: Cephalurus Bigelow et Schroeder, 1941 = Great-headed shark
    • Genus: Figaro Whitley, 1928 = Figaro
    • Genus: Galeus Rafinesque, 1810 = Sawtails
    • Genus: Halaelurus Gill, 1861 = Spotted Shark
    • Genus: Haploblepharus Garman = South African cat shark
    • Genus: Holohalaelurus Fowler = African Spotted Shark
    • Genus: Parmaturus Garman = Parmaturus Cat Shark
    • Genus: Pentanchus Smith et Radcliff, 1912 = Single finned cat sharks
    • Genus: Poroderma A. Smith, 1837 = Whiskered Cat Shark
    • Genus: Schroederichthys Springer = Spotted Cat Shark
    • Genus: Scyliorhinus Blainville, 1816 = Cat sharks
  • Family: Sphyrnidae Gill = Hammerhead sharks

    • Genus: Eusphyra = Large-headed hammerhead
    • Genus: Sphyrna Rafinesque, 1810 = Hammerhead fish, or hammerhead sharks
  • Family: Triakidae Gray = Mussel Sharks

    • Genus: Furgaleus Whitley = Whiskered Harrier Shark
    • Genus: Galeorhinus Blainville, 1816 = Soup sharks
    • Genus: Gogolia Compagno = Gogolia
    • Genus: Hemitriakis Herre = Soup Sharks
    • Genus: Hypogaleus Smith =
    • Genus: Iago Compagno et Springer = Iago
    • Genus: Mustelus Linck = Harlequin shark
    • Genus: Scylliogaleus Boulenger = Duck-nosed shark
    • Genus: Triakis JP Müller & Henle, 1838 = Three-toothed sharks, or triple-toothed sharks

Literature:

1. Naumov NP, Kartashev NN Zoology of vertebrates. - Part 2. - Reptiles, birds, mammals: A textbook for a biologist. specialist. un-tov. - M.: Higher. school, 1979. - 272 p., ill.

2. Commercial fish of Russia. In two volumes / ed. O.F.Gritsenko, A.N. Kotlyar and B.N.Kotenyov.- Moscow: VNIRO publishing house. 2006. - 1280 s. (Volume 1 - 656 p.).

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