Video: New Directions In The Assessment Of Service Dogs According To The Constitution
Having a good dog is every trainer's dream. It is known that the value of a service dog depends on its natural properties and those qualities that are necessary for use in work.
The natural properties of a dog are the biological and physiological characteristics of an animal that evolved under the influence of living conditions and environmental influences. These include: strength, dexterity, courage, speed of reaction, acuity of hearing, sight, smell, the ability to fight, quickly adapt to various conditions of existence, etc.
Under the influence of man, many of the natural properties of a dog were improved and formed into such service qualities as sensitivity, attentiveness, malleability to training, obedience, affection and devotion to the owner, alertness, vigilance, distrust and malice towards strangers, the ability to protect oneself and the owner, to protect him things, conduct a long search for scent trails.
However, the natural properties and service qualities in different dogs, even of the same breed, are manifested differently. They depend on many factors, but mainly on the constitutional characteristics of the organism. Features of the dog's constitution are the most important characteristic when describing the breed expression according to the standard and when assessing its service and breeding qualities.
The constitution should be understood as the totality of the most important morphological and physiological characteristics of the organism as a whole, conditioned by heredity, developmental conditions and associated with the nature of productivity and the ability of the organism to react in a certain way to external stimuli.
The concept of "dog constitution" unites all the properties of the organism, including its service and breeding qualities. Health, vitality, resistance, early maturity, fertility, life expectancy and working capacity of the animal are associated with the constitution.
The constitution is formed on a hereditary basis in the process of individual development and is expressed in certain forms of physique, in the consistency of the structure and functions of individual parts of the body and the whole organism as a whole, is a measure of the organism's adaptation to certain living conditions.
There is sufficient data on the constitution of animals. Different approaches to the study of the constitution gave rise to a large number of definitions and classifications. Most authors interpret the constitution of animals as a set of functional and morphological characteristics of the organism, expressed in the general constitution and behavior. In all cases, the Constitution is considered inextricably linked with the living conditions and economic value of animals for which they are bred. The productivity and performance of an animal largely depends on the type of constitution.
The classification of types of animal constitution by Russian scientists N.N.Kuleshov, E.A. Bogdanov, M.F. Ivanov and others was based on the anatomical principle, according to which they identified five types of constitution: loose (raw), rough, strong, dry and gentle. The strong type of constitution, proposed by EA Bogdanov and MF Ivanov, was adopted as the most perfect, possessing all the positive properties and natural qualities of the animal.
In relation to the doctrine of the constitution of animals, A.P. Mazover most successfully described and substantiated five types of dog constitutions, which have been used by experts for many years in the practice of examination and appraisal of service, hunting and decorative dogs.
Many years of experience have shown that the existing scheme for determining the types of constitution is not completely perfect and practically comes down to assessing dogs mainly by their exterior characteristics. The value of a service dog is determined by the ability to train and working qualities, which largely depend on the functional state of the nervous system, due to the type of higher nervous activity of the animal.
The type of higher nervous activity is hereditary, has an interdependent relationship with the type of constitution and affects the behavior of the animal. Therefore, the type of constitution should be considered as a genetically determined relationship between the beneficial properties and qualities of an animal with the characteristics of its behavior and physique. In practice, the type of constitution of dogs is determined by the totality of many characteristics inherent in the animal. Let's consider the characteristics of the main types of constitution of service dogs.
Gentle type of constitution. The type of higher nervous activity is weak: the processes of excitation and inhibition are weak, unbalanced in strength and mobility. The behavior is very diverse: there are dogs with excessive mobility (fussiness), others are cautious and passive.