Video: Methodical Tips For Training Dogs
Practical work with dogs - training should be started after studying the psychophysical foundations of dog behavior and the technique of developing skills. The basis for successful training is high-quality training (education) of the trainers themselves.
Methods and techniques (technique) for developing each specific skill in dogs are described in special manuals. Nevertheless, in order to link all the skills into a single sequential-combined system of training (a lesson plan), at least some of the basic, basic positions that should guide the dog breeder when developing any skill in animals should be highlighted and recalled.
1. Ability to correctly analyze the behavior of the dog in general and specifically in the process of developing each skill separately, taking into account the identified individual characteristics of the trained animal. In particular, the general type of external behavior, the prevailing reaction, individual characteristics of the manifestation of conditioned reflexes to various stimuli, typical signs of the external manifestation of emotions in a dog, and other features of acquired and rational forms of behavior. All this gives the observant trainer the opportunity to predict the reactions of the animal to all sorts of influences of the trainer himself and the variety of stimuli of the environment during training. Studies have found that without the participation of emotions, the acquisition of new skills does not occur at all. It is recommended to train dogs prior to feeding in order to maximize hunger emotions in the animal.For the same reason, the manifestation of malice in dogs is intensified before starting to develop the skill to detain a fleeing person with subsequent escort.
The trainer must skillfully evoke and use the necessary emotions to develop skills and inhibit (better anticipate) emotions that interfere with training, for example, emotions of sexual desire, etc. The process of developing skills in an animal is accompanied by experiences in the form of positive (pleasant) or negative (unpleasant) emotions. The actions of the dog necessary for the trainer are encouraged, therefore, and accompanied by positive emotions, at the same time, unwanted actions are inhibitedand cause the manifestation of negative emotions. When working with an animal, it should be remembered that for each activity there is a certain optimum of emotional stress, at which the greatest effect is achieved. From trainers, you need to achieve a clear, correct implementation of all the necessary techniques (actions) to develop a particular skill in a dog, taking into account its individual characteristics of behavior, and only then allow them to train their dogs on their own.
The concept of a skill development technique includes various methods and all those various techniques (actions) with which the trainer achieves a skill manifestation from an animal. One and the same skill can be developed by different methods (mechanical, taste-encouraging, etc.), and the trainer's actions, that is, the techniques he uses to develop the skill, will be very different. The development of the same skill for a command and a gesture is also carried out in different ways. Thus, the trainer must master the technique of developing this or that skill, using various methods and techniques.
2. A clear knowledge and observance of all conditions for the development of reflexes (skills) in dogs. Particular attention should be paid to the ability to correctly reinforce a conditioned stimulus (command, gesture, etc.) with an unconditioned one (give a treat, press on certain parts of the dog's body, etc.). In the initial period of developing any skill, reinforcement is used mainly systematically. As soon as the skill begins to manifest itself in response to a signal (command, gesture, etc.), it is advisable to use reinforcement less and less often., in an undefined order. The dog waits all the time for reinforcement (after the action of the conditioned signal), but when it will follow, after what exercise, it remains unknown to him. This factor keeps the dog active at work and contributes to the development of a more consistent skill. Partial reinforcement of conditioned stimuli (up to 50 percent) does not hinder the development of a reflex and significantly slows down its extinction with the subsequent complete cancellation of the reinforcing effect. Uncertainty, characteristic of partial reinforcement, leads to the activation of the apparatus of emotions, which exerts its stimulating effect on the mechanism of formation of a conditioned reflex (skill).
As the skill to the trainer's signal is strengthened, reinforcement is used only from time to time.When the skill is firmly fixed, it manifests itself automatically to a conditioned signal without reinforcement, that is, a well-fed dog will work well according to the trainer's commands. During this period, the leading role in the formation of behavior belongs to external factors and the emerging need for a certain signal to perform certain muscle movements - a skill (dynamic stereotype). Nerve impulses go to the muscles, so to speak, along well-trodden paths, quite definite. Coordination with these complex motor reflexes is easy, the animal's body does not experience severe fatigue. The conditioned stimulus is a trigger signal based on the available traces of memory of the achievement of the future end result. Memorable traces of excitement turn into an active beginning of motor actions that carry out purposeful behavior.All this takes place against the background of appropriate motivation and emotional excitement. Elements of previously formed motor conditioned reflexes (skills) are used to develop new skills.