Cat Balance

Cat Balance
Cat Balance

Video: Cat Balance

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Балансировние На Бревне Челлендж! Попытка не упасть! | Kittisaurus 2023, February

I am not indifferent to cats since childhood. And from childhood I never tire of being surprised at their ability to jump.

During the war, we had a huge cat, brought by my father from the expedition. His name was Cat-Fedot. It was a serious beast. I caught rats and was not at all afraid of dogs. They treated him with respect, as, indeed, did the neighbors' cats. He easily jumped on high beds and piles of firewood in the yard, fearlessly jumped off the roof of the house where we lived then. Looking at it, I wondered: why does it not break? Then the height seemed significant to me. I had no idea that cats can jump from much higher heights.

I remember one more case. As a student, I did an internship at the Zvenigorod biological station of Moscow State University. A stray kitten lived at the biological station. He was not allowed into the houses, and he did not strive there: he was wild and wayward. It was not given to anyone. Once, returning from a morning excursion, I heard a raven shout. Looking out for the cause of the commotion. On a high tree is a crow's nest, and below, on a thick branch, our kitten. The crows lose their temper, get closer and closer. The kitten snuggled, twists its head, bares its teeth. But this does not stop the owners of the nest. Here is one rally attacking him, thrown from the branch. The kitten flies down, tumbling first. And then he turns his legs down and plans. He landed on the grass and, pursued by crows, immediately rushed to hide under a bush.

By this time, I was already seriously interested in the ability of animals to control their bodies in the air. Of course, birds, bats, and dragonflies remained unrivaled. Well, cats have no wings. And nevertheless, they can orient their bodies in space in such a way that they can land on all four legs without getting too severe injuries. This is possible only if there is a perfect balance organ, which is called a "gyroscope" in technology. Cats have an excellent "gyroscope", and it is located in the inner ear, next to the cochlea - the organ of hearing. This cat's "gyroscope" is called a vestibular apparatus and is arranged as follows.

Ginger long-haired cat jumping for dry leaves, photo cat photo picture
Ginger long-haired cat jumping for dry leaves, photo cat photo picture

В вестибулярном аппарате кошки имеется два перепончатых образования, которые анатомы называют мешочками. А мешочки имеют свои названия - утрикулюс и саккулюс. Мешочки заполнены специальной жидкостью - эндолимфой, и в каждом располагается по одному возвышению, называемому пятном или макулой. В каждой макуле находятся чувствительные клетки с волосками, свободные концы волосков проникают в покрывающую их полупрозрачную студенистую массу. Эта масса тоже имеет название - отолитовая мембрана, в ней содержатся микроскопические кристаллы углекислого и фосфорно-кислого кальция. К чувствительным клеткам подходят окончания волокон вестибулярного нерва.

If the cat moves unevenly, accelerating or slowing down, shaking, rolling, changing the position of the head and the whole body, the otolith membrane displaces, applying pressure or changing the tension of sensitive hairs, which irritates the nerve endings.

Three membranous semicircular canals approach the utriculus, which are located in three mutually perpendicular planes - horizontal, vertical-transverse and vertical-longitudinal. Each of these canals begins and ends in the utriculus, but two of them grow together at their ends, entering the sac with a common opening. Thus, the semicircular canals communicate with the utriculus not by six, but by five holes.

The ends of the canals, opening into the utriculus, are expanded in the form of an ampulla and have a protrusion inside - a ridge. The scallop contains sensory cells with hairs and supporting or supporting cells. Sensory cells are surrounded by nerve endings of the vestibular nerve. The hairs of sensitive cells are immersed in a translucent mass - cupula or vault.

The semicircular canals are filled with endolymph, which, displaced by the force of inertia, deflects the cupula, bending the hairs and causing irritation of the nerve endings. The irritating factor is the acceleration or deceleration of the rotational movement. The endolymph moves along the canal, deflecting the cupula and bending sensitive hairs, which irritates the nerve endings.

Information about a change in body position along the fibers of the vestibular nerve enters the medulla oblongata, and then partly into the cerebellum, and partly into the vestibular nuclei of the pons. Part of the fibers of the vestibular nerve is sent to the nuclei, named after the scientists who described them, Deiters, Schwalbe and Bekhterev. Although the information flow from the vestibular apparatus eventually reaches the cerebral cortex, which makes the final decision, on its way information is read and used by intermediate levels, primarily the cerebellar.

But the semicircular canals are not only responsible for balance. Muscles responsible for supporting the neck, trunk, and limbs are associated with the activity of the vestibular apparatus. With high-altitude jumps and falls, this is especially important. In the same way as when moving along tree branches. Let's watch a cat climbing a tree. With amazing grace, she walks along a thin branch, slightly bending under her weight. Or steps on the picket fence, fearlessly walks along the upper edge of the garden fence, while examining the nearest surroundings.

Cat hearing
Cat hearing

Cat Hearing Article

But, of course, the most amazing were and remain the high-altitude jumps and falls of cats. The following figures indicate the height from which cats fall and remain alive.

The cat-record holder (kitten named Sabrina), falling from the height of the 32nd floor, not only remained alive, but also received only minor injuries. It is known that cats falling from high floors tolerate their falls more easily and receive less injuries than cats jumping from windows located on lower floors, for example, up to the sixth. Although the actual reasons for this phenomenon are not fully established, scientists believe that it is less important than in humans, the indicator - the ratio of the cat's body mass to its area. If a cat jumps from the sixth floor, the maximum speed of its fall reaches 100 km / h, for a person falling from the same height, it is twice as large. In this case, the cat lands on four legs, moreover skillfully relaxed.

A cat falling from a great height at a certain distance to the landing site spreads its paws, like an experienced parachutist, immediately after reaching the maximum falling speed. In short, in this case, we have a lot to learn from cats.

Source: Valery Ilyichev, Doctor of Biological Sciences, Professor, "Friend" magazine (cats) - 1998 - 4-5

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