Video: Infectious Diseases Of Cats
Kittens and adult cats are susceptible to infectious diseases of viral, bacterial and fungal nature. The three most common infectious diseases in domestic cats are described below.
Panleukopenia, or infectious parvovirus enteritis, is a dangerous disease that poisons the body of an animal. The virus (virus panleukopenia feline), which causes panleukopenia, affects the intestines, dehydrates the animal's body, and reduces the total number of leukocytes in the blood. The mortality rate of kittens with this disease is 90%. The virus is not dangerous to humans. The virus infects the crypts of the small intestine, bone marrow cells, and the lymphatic system. The panleukopenia virus is also dangerous because of its resistance to heat and disinfectants. Even at low temperatures, it can persist in the organs of sick animals, feces for a year. The incubation period of the disease is very uncertain: from three to twelve days.
In order to notice the disease in time, the owners must be very attentive to their wards. Sudden oppression of the animal, fever, vomiting, diarrhea are a sure sign that the cat is ill. Very often, in this state, a sick animal looks for secluded cool places, lies on its stomach with its head thrown back and outstretched paws, sits over a bowl of water, but does not drink. Vomit is greenish-yellow in color, contains mucus, sometimes blood. The urine of cats turns dark yellow with fluctuations to light orange. The feces become thin and foul-smelling, often contaminated with blood and fibrin. Feeling the abdomen is always painful and can cause vomiting, the intestines of a sick animal are like hard thickened cords, making sounds of splashing and rumbling. The mucous membrane of the mouth of cats becomes dry and cyanotic,conjunctivitis and rhinitis also join the underlying disease.
It is believed that during vomiting, parvoviruses also penetrate into the upper respiratory tract of a cat and then are released into the external environment by airborne droplets. A transmission mechanism of infection is also possible - through blood-sucking insects, in particular, fleas. Also, the possibility of intrauterine infection of kittens is not excluded.
Ввиду обезвоживания организма кошки сильно худеют, шерсть становится тусклой, кожа - сухой и вялой. У старых кошек может возникнуть отёк лёгких, сопровождающийся влажными хрипами. Кошки вне зависимости от возраста могут впасть в кому, у них могут возникнуть судороги. Заметив такие признаки, владелец должен обязательно показать своего питомца врачу. Заболевание может протекать как в легкой форме (в течение недели кошка выздоравливает), так и в тяжелой (течение болезни бывает сверхострым, и кошка внезапно погибает, как при отравлениях).
With a mild form of the disease, it is sometimes enough to carry out a course of treatment, consisting of a starvation diet, two or three injections of antibiotics and several microclysters from a decoction of calendula or chamomile. It is very useful to dilute the tincture of calendula with cold boiled water at the rate of one teaspoon to half a glass of water, and give this cocktail to your pet to drink. And if there is activated charcoal and alochol in the home medicine cabinet, then you can give the patient half a tablet of the first drug and a tablet of the second. However, the main treatment for panleukopenia is the daily administration of a specific serum to a sick cat.
The diagnosis of "panleukopenia" is established on the basis of laboratory data: PCR or ELISA diagnostics of blood or feces. The results of a general clinical blood test allow a veterinarian to suspect panleukopenia.
Infectious rhinotracheitis is another of the most common infectious diseases in both adult animals and kittens. An infection that affects the body causes inflammation of the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract. The virus that causes rhinotracheitis is very resistant to an acidic environment, however, this dangerous infection also has a weakness: on a dry surface, the virus dies within 12 hours. The incubation period, depending on the degree of infection by the virus, can last from 2 to 6 days (with mild and moderate forms of the disease), up to 10-14 days (with an acute course of the disease). The virus is sensitive to ether and chloroform, and solutions of caustic soda, formalin and phenol (1-2%) inactivate the pathogen after 10 minutes.
The source of the causative agent of the infection is sick and ill cats, which are carriers of the virus for 8-9 months after recovery. In the respiratory tract of cats, the pathogen is detected within 50 days. Latent carriage is possible. The virus is excreted with nasal secretions, outflows from the eyes and genitals, with milk, urine, feces, semen. The transmission can be infected air, food, care items, vehicles, as well as insects, people who have had contact with sick animals. Under natural conditions, animals are infected mainly aerogenically. The spread of the disease is facilitated by reduced body resistance, overheating or hypothermia, inadequate feeding and inappropriate housing conditions for cats.
The incubation period is 3-8 days. The disease is acute, subacute and chronic. Usually, infectious rhinotracheitis occurs in an acute form. A sick cat has an increase in body temperature up to 40 ° C for 2-3 days, conjunctivitis, rhinitis develops, there are often abundant purulent outflows from the eyes and nose, cough, hoarseness, and often accumulation of exudate in the pharynx, which leads to vomiting. Drooling and the formation of small ulcers on the top of the tongue are possible. The mucous membranes of the nose, pharynx, larynx are sharply swollen, edematous, often hyperemic (red nose). Sick animals develop shortness of breath (breathe with an open mouth). Food and water intake is difficult. Recovery occurs in 7-10 days. In the chronic course of the disease, intestinal atony is noted, expressed in constipation.Rhinitis becomes chronic and can take years for cats to develop. Rhinotracheitis can be complicated by bronchitis and pneumonia, accompanied by skin ulcers, ulcerative keratitis and disorders of the central nervous system (trembling of the limbs, manege movements). Pregnant cats are prone to miscarriages and stillbirth. Diagnosis is by clinical symptoms and laboratory analysis of eye and nasal discharge.
If this happens to your pet, do not despair, but be patient and treat it. Adult animals get sick with this disease, usually without the help of a veterinarian. Treatment can be carried out with antibiotics (penicillins and cephalosporins) by the owner himself. Chloramphenicol or gentamicin drops, as well as penicillin diluted with 0.5% novocaine solution, can be dripped into the eyes and nose. In no case should albucid be dripped to a sick animal. Inside, for discharge, you can give thermopsis herb with soda, and this mixture must be diluted in warm water.
The incidence reaches 50%, the mortality rate is 5-20%. The recovered animal acquires immunity. Often kittens get sick in utero or immediately after birth, while the mother cat may not suffer from this disease. If your kitten is sick, then the first thing to do is to dilute penicillin and drip it into his eyes and nose, and then be sure to contact your veterinarian.
Urolithiasis, or urolithiasis, occurs most frequently in cats and is accompanied by the formation of urinary stones in the renal tubules, renal pelvis, and bladder. This disease affects about 12% of all cats.
It has now been proven that an insufficient intake of water in the cat's body and an increased pH of urine contribute to the formation of uroliths and the occurrence of urolithiasis.
Evolutionarily, cats have a weakened sense of thirst. They have a high concentration of urine (in a small volume of fluid - a high salt content), which, accordingly, can also contribute to the formation of calculi. Stones usually do not exceed the size of grains of sand, and therefore pose a particular danger for cats: urinary "sand" can clog the opening of the urogenital canal, which entails its obstruction. An inflammatory process begins in the animal's bladder, and toxic metabolic products accumulate in the blood - all this leads to self-poisoning of the body.
In cats, the symptoms of KSD appear 5 times more often than in cats. This is due to the fact that anatomically, the diameter of the urethral lumen is three times smaller in cats than in cats. In addition, it is in cats that the urethra has a specific S-shaped bend (in cats it is straight). Because of this anatomical feature, cats are more likely to have urinary obstruction syndrome than cats. The disease most often has a chronic course. The process of stone formation can last for months or even years. Large stones may not make themselves felt for a long time, small stones, often in the form of sand, can clog certain parts of the urinary system and cause difficulty urinating in animals.
The most predisposing factors for the occurrence of ICD are: genetic predisposition, an unbalanced diet of an animal, a violation or lack of dosing of ready-made feed, poor-quality water composition, a sedentary lifestyle of an animal, obesity, infections, systemic diseases, urinary retention due to a dirty toilet tray.
Clinically, this disease manifests itself suddenly. Disturbed and painful urination is observed. The animal does not urinate in its toilet, but where it is necessary and drop by drop. The process itself is painful, the animal often meows plaintively. Urine sometimes mixed with blood. Urination becomes more frequent, interrupted by false desires, fine sand may be contained in the urine.
The animal begins to vigorously lick the external genital opening, since the sand passing along the urethra causes pain and irritation. The body temperature of the animal can rise by 1.0 ° C (T 39.5-40 ° C). After a day, the animal becomes lethargic, loses its appetite. If there is a blockage of the urinary tract, there is no urination at all - the animal meows, worries, tries to take a posture for urination.
The abdomen becomes dense, increases in size. The bladder overflows, due to the impossibility of emptying, urine stagnation occurs, and the process of intoxication of the body begins. All this leads to the complete lethargy of the animal, loss of appetite, vomiting, a rapid drop in the body temperature of the animal (T 35-36 ° C). If you do not take timely measures, then within 2-3 days the death of the animal from intoxication or rupture of the bladder is possible.
If the animal has at least one of the above symptoms, it is very important to immediately consult a veterinarian. Urolithiasis lasts a long time and tends to relapse.
Treatment consists in the surgical restoration of the patency of the urinary tract by catheterization or by urethrostomy, followed by drug and dietary prevention of urolithiasis. The most effective symptomatic therapy with the use of antispasmodic drugs, drugs that dissolve and stimulate the excretion of salts in the urine, herbal medicine (the appointment of infusions of horsetail, bearberry leaves, lingonberry leaves). In each case, the treatment is selected individually, taking into account the sex, age of the animal, the degree of damage, the presence of concomitant diseases.
In order to protect the cat from this serious illness, it is necessary to exclude, first of all, predisposing factors, to improve the conditions for feeding and drinking the animal. The cat must have free access to clean drinking water. The animal's diet must be professionally balanced in terms of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals.
If the cat is fed ready-made food, the food must correspond to the type of animal, age, and physiological state. Do not mix ready-made feeds and natural feeds during daily feeding.
And most importantly, when feeding with ready-made rations (especially dry food), strictly adhere to the specified feeding norms, which are given on each food package. When choosing the type of feeding, try to adhere to it, avoiding mixing different feeds (or only ready-made dry feed, or only natural food). When choosing feeding with industrial products, give preference to high quality balanced feed.