Video: Horse Training And Testing
2023 Author: Molly Page | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 22:49
Training, or training, a horse is a system of exercises (movements) performed at different gaits and distances with different speed (agility) with an appropriate mode of maintenance and feeding. Depending on the type and breed of the horse, its age and purpose, the types of exercises (training work of the horse), their alternation, the sequence of complication and increasing requirements, that is, the specific training system and its individual techniques, will be very different.
In working with young breeding horses, the task of training is, first of all, to purposefully promote the all-round physical development and formation of the growing horse's body in the desired direction of the type and properties of working capacity. In horses of different breeds, training develops the ability either to run exceptionally fast at a trotting gait, or to jump quickly in a career, or to move in harness with great traction. By training, they not only develop in their functions, but also adapt to the interaction of the organs and systems of the horse's body.
Training, systematically carried out from generation to generation, is not only one of the types of targeted impact on the body of each individual horse, but also the way to improve the entire breed.
The narrower tasks of training, although very difficult for a practical solution, are to prepare the horse for one or another specific test at the hippodrome or for equestrian competitions, in particular for a particular prize or type of competition. It is necessary to understand the difference between the trials of breeding horses (and in this regard, between the tasks of racetracks in the indicated zootechnical work with the breed) and equestrian competitions, which are one of the sports and physical culture work. In the hands of a rider-trainer in a stud farm and a hippodrome, a trained horse is, in fact, a material that undergoes a certain processing, as a result of which its qualities change and improve, including, which is especially valuable, heredity and breeding dignity …Tests of breeding horses, whether at trotting races, at races, for traction or endurance, etc., are aimed at assessing the horse for breeding purposes in terms of its performance indicators, as well as assessing the breeding qualities of producers based on the results of testing their offspring; this is their zootechnical task and essence.
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For an athlete, a horse is a means of achieving sports goals and success, a means of improving, first of all, his own sports qualities. That is why in equestrian sports geldings are often valued above stallions and mares, although they do not have any significance in breeding.
Unfortunately, not for all, even factory breeds, systematic training and performance tests have been introduced. This, of course, lowers the level of breeding work with them, since it does not provide proper grounds for the selection and selection of animals for comparable performance indicators.
The training and testing of thoroughbred horses and trotters has long been developed and widely carried out. Training of horses of these breeds is divided into two periods - factory and hippodrome. Only in recent decades has it been recognized that it is fundamentally necessary for heavy-harness breeds to include training and testing in the system of breeding work with them. Now, both in our country and in some other countries, the training and testing of horses of heavy harness breeds has begun to be carried out more or less systematically.
Factory training as such usually begins at the age of 1.5. Only in trotting stud farms, the foals are sometimes run in and initial training at the age of one year before they are pastured. It is also practiced, but very rarely, the training of trotting stallions from the age of one year without a break for the summer and without releasing them to pasture, but only with walking in levada. The factory training period ends by 2.5 years, when the young animals from the factories are sent to the racetracks for further training and testing.
The general principles and main tasks of the factory training period include: riding and initial dressage of young animals, teaching them to control and obedience to humans, practicing correct movements at various gaits and coordinated work of all systems and organs.
Particular attention is paid to the activity and condition of the trained young animals of the nervous system as the leading one in the regulation and coordination of all processes occurring in the animal's body. The development of useful conditioned reflexes is widely used in horse training.… Handling an animal, choosing training techniques and applying them requires a careful individual approach to each horse and taking into account the peculiarities of its nervous system and the displayed reaction. The general principle should be a gradual increase in the load given to the horse, the alternation of types of training work and their definite sequence. Overloading and overworking a young horse must not be allowed; it must always be vigorous and ready to fulfill the trainer's requirements. One should not get carried away by the manifestation of the foal's ability to be very agile and "overwhelm" it with increased demands. Monotony and monotony should be avoided, for which training is recommended not only on the running (race) circle of the plant, but with field trips, on different roads, in winter on a pond, river, etc. The goal of factory training is not to achieve records of agility or strength, but only to identify abilities and develop stable, clear gaits with the obligatory optimal development of the entire horse's body. Maintaining health, in particular strengthening the tendon-ligamentous and muscular apparatus, is a prerequisite for training.
Work on the training of a trotting foal begins with the so-called race. The stages of the race are schematically as follows. The foal is brought to the arena or, if there is no arena, to a flat cleared area, a cord is attached to the halter - a long, thin, but strong rope, the other end of which is held by the coach in the middle of the circle. The grooms assisting the trainer force the foal to walk first and then trot in a circle. Subsequently, the cord is replaced with reins and the foal race in the arena on the reins, gradually controlling the movement of the foal with their help: speeding up, slowing down or completely stopping it. Such work in the arena should not last more than half an hour a day. A foal race must be run in both directions with an equal number of laps. If the farm has a riding arena (preferably a round arena), then some coaches recommend a free race for foals,and not race them on the line or on the reins.
The second stage of the race is playing on the reins. The foal is “collected”, that is, a bridle and a running harness are put on it, and then taken out into the arena or on an open area and forced to move. At the same time, the rider-trainer goes behind the foal and controls the reins, forcing him to turn in one direction or the other, then stop, then continue moving again. If the foal does not fulfill the requirements, does not turn in the right direction, etc., the groom quickly approaches the foal and directs the movement as instructed by the coach. In all these activities, the foal should be treated patiently, gently, affectionately, but persistently, ensuring that the foal fulfills every requirement, every exercise; for good obedience, one should immediately (encourage the foal with affection and delicacies (bread, carrots, sugar).
From the very first steps in foal handling, attention should be paid to working out the horse's mouth, since maintaining its sensitivity is of paramount importance to the success of horse dressage. It is the gums and lips that perceive the movement of the reins and the bit, with which the rider signals his demands on the horse while riding. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the fact that the bridle is correctly fitted on the foal, and the bit (simple) lies on the toothless edge of the gums and only slightly touches the lips in the corners of them, does not stretch or rub the lips and gums. The horse's tongue should lie under the bit; the foal should not be allowed to shift his tongue to the bit, which happens most often when the bit is large and dangles in the horse's mouth. Sometimes the tongue and lower jaw of the horse have to be tied with a gauze bandage.
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When controlling the reins, do not pull and pull them too tight; the tension of both reins should be exactly the same, so that the foal does not deflect fishing to the side, does not become tight, poorly controlled due to coarse gums and lips. When the foal is sufficiently familiar with the control of the reins and will calmly turn in the right direction, stop, stand still and again, at the request of the rider, go forward, you can proceed to the next stage of work - to harness and ride in a carriage. In the process of training and handling a horse, it is necessary to use not only the reins, reins, but also the voice, accustoming the horse to its shades and the power of sound. The impact with the reins, and when necessary with the whip, should be combined with the impact of the voice. “Conversation” with the horse greatly contributes to its handling.
The first harness of a foal is a responsible business; inept carrying it out can scare the foal, he will resist her in every possible way and in the future can become a "rip-off".
The foal is put on the already familiar bridle with reins, a halter with two easily fastened leashes and a running harness. Having chased the foal a little in the arena, in order to give an outlet for excess energy, it is taken outside to a spacious place for harnessing and allowed to look around, sniff the carriage - a sleigh or a running rocking chair, depending on conditions. One groom stands in front of the foal and holds it, and the rider with an assistant rolls the rocking chair from behind with the shafts raised at first, then they are lowered so that the foal is in the shafts, and quickly harnessed; everything must be done quickly, without hustle and bustle and noise and so as not to hit the foal with the shafts, not to scare him. In no way should the foal be allowed to break free, no matter how hard he tries.… As soon as the harness is complete, both grooms, holding the foal by the leashes on both sides, begin to lead him step forward, moving in a straight direction along the path. The rider, holding the reins in his hands, first goes after the rocking chair, and then sits in it on the go; the grooms continue to walk near the foal's head. As the foal gets used to the fact that he has to carry the rocking chair with the man, the grooms gradually move away from him, but still go close, so that at any moment they can pick him up and help the rider to control the movement. In the first days of riding in rocking chairs, the distance is limited to 200-300-400 m. Gradually, the distance is increased to 2-3 km and, in addition to the step, the foal's work is introduced in various specially training gaits - trot, swing, swing, which are varieties of trotting gait.
Then comes the main period of factory training, which lasts until the spring and summer of next year, when the young reach 2-2.5 years of age and the time comes to send it to the racetrack for testing. During this period of factory training of young stock, the main principle of training is to alternate days of work at different gaits and different intensities with days of complete rest for horses.
In the days of high- speed work in late spring and early summer, work on agility with "tips" is introduced, that is, when the horse is forced to run several tens of meters at almost maximum speed for it. Such throws with great tension of the whole body are necessary not only to test what the horse is already capable of, but also as a technique for the further development of its agility. Each rider-trainer organizes training in his own way, guided by the experience of his work, general principles and to a large extent intuition. The scientific coverage of horse training issues does not go beyond some general provisions and cannot yet be used to guide in each case.
For example, but not as a reference, you can give the following training schedule for the week: the first day (say, Monday) - trot work, the second day - "fun" trot, that is, somewhat faster, the third day - swing, the fourth day - the trot, the fifth day - the "cheerful" trot, the sixth day - swing work and the seventh day - the day off (the young are resting in the levada).
In order to develop in horses the ability not only to run the distance very briskly, but also to quickly restore strength, endurance, and the readiness to repeat their run after a short respite-rest, two-round swing work is used. For the purpose of the versatile development of trotting horses, it is recommended to practice work in the Russian harness with a collar, in a sleigh in winter and in a four-wheeled carriage in summer, both lightly at a trot and with a load step.
At the Leningrad and Moscow hippodromes, the system of combined trotter training was successfully used, developed by an employee of the Institute of Horse Breeding, Comrade S. D. Gaidaburov.
Riding horses are trained in stud farms, guided by basically the same general principles as when training trotters. The differences lie in the technical side. Riding here always begins in the fall, when the foals are approaching or have already reached 1.5 years. The best time to start riding racehorses is mid-August. Many people recommend starting riding horses with playing on the reins, but the main goal is always to train a one and a half year old foal to carry a person sitting in the saddle and understand the management of the reins and other special techniques.
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After the end of the race, the horses are systematically trained . The workout is carried out daily for six days of the week; on the seventh day, the horses are allowed to rest with a lead or release into a levada or brew. For training and testing, it is more convenient to have a special track (elongated circle) 1000 m long and 10-12 m wide
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