Video: American Standardbred Horse
2023 Author: Molly Page | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 22:49
The American Standardbred is a lightly harnessed breed developed in the United States in the early 19th century. He is one of the most playful and noble trotters in the world. In the past, every country that developed trotting races imported these horses to improve the qualities of their trotters and pacers.
The American trotting horse was bred in the United States through a complex reproductive cross. Thoroughbred horses, Arabian, Norfolk and other breeds, as well as Canadian pacers were used in the selection. An important role in the formation of the breed was played by the purebred riding stallion of the gray color Messenger, born in 1780, leading its origin from Darley Arabian. Participated in three seasons of racing and won eight starts out of fourteen. In April 1788 he was taken to Philadelphia, and in America he was used as a breeding stallion for 20 years, and first of all he was crossed with purebred mares. During these 20 years of tribal use, a special branch of trotters was obtained from him, which, in terms of agility and trotting qualities, were unmatched.
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The ancestor of the breed is the stallion Gambletonian X, born in 1849, the great-grandson of Messenger. The name "standardbred" breed received due to the fact that, starting from 1879 - the year of official recognition of the breed, the right to record horses in the register was due to certain requirements (standard) of agility. These standards have changed from time to time. The first herdbook of the new breed was published in 1871, and eight years later its current name was established for the breed - Standardbred, which means "derived by standard". Until 1931, it was mandatory that horses run a mile (1609 m) in 2 min 25 s, and pacers in 2 min 25 s. After 1931, the main requirement for registration in the register was not the agility shown in the tests at the racetrack, but the origin of the horse from the parents recorded in the book.
The American trotter is a distinct prize horse. Thanks to the selection based on only one feature - agility - the breeders managed to breed horses with outstanding ability to run in light carriages.
Modern American standard-bred horses are rather large animals of regular conformation, strong constitution, well-developed muscles, dry, strong limbs and surprisingly easy productive movements. Horses are early maturing, durable and obedient. All absolute records were set on horses 3-4 years old. Among trotters, the record per mile belongs to 3-year-old Mac Lobell - 1 min 52.2 s, and among pacers - 3-year-old Neatros - 1 min 49.2 s.
Standardbreds do not have one clear exterior and height restrictions. Horses of this breed are from 142 to 163 cm, sometimes taller (although most of the breed is within 152-163 cm). Weight ranges from 360 to 450 kg. The colors are primarily bay, brown, red, karak, rarely black and gray. There are very few horses with white markings. Gray horses are usually kept away from breeding.
A head with a broad forehead, large nostrils and a small mouth. The neck is muscular, slightly arched. The body structure is powerful, somewhat less noble and harmonious than a thoroughbred horse, with a more stretched body, well-defined withers and shorter legs.
In addition to selection, excellent breeding conditions, well-organized training and racetrack tests also play an important role in the breeding of fast, standard-bred horses.
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Today there are separate lines of trotters and pacers in the breed. The lines of pacers include the lines of Direct, Abidale, Neble Hanover and the son of the latter, Night Dream. Trotter lines - Volomite, Scotland, Asquorthy.
Volomite 2.03 1/4, born in 1926, which develops through his two grandchildren, first-class sport trotters and breeders - Star's Pride 1.57.1 and Noble Victory 1.55 3/5;
Scotland 1.59 1/4, born 1925, through his son the stallion Hoot Mona 2.00 and the grandson Speedster 1.59 1/5, whose sons, grandchildren and great-grandchildren now dominate America's racetracks;
Axworthy 2.15 1/2, b. 1892 The line continues through Floriken 1.57 2/5.
Work on the reproduction of purebred American trotters is organized at the Maikop stud farm (Krasnodar Territory) and at the horse farm of the Kuban state stables. On the hippodromes, these horses are tested together with the Russian trotter. When recording them in the State Books, after the individual number of the breeding horse, they put the sign "A".
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