Video: Formation Of Orientation-research And Passive-defensive Behavior Of The Dog
2023 Author: Molly Page | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 22:49
It is known that dogs used for various types of service work must have certain properties of higher nervous activity. For example, animals with a well-developed orientation reflex (OR) and a weakly expressed passive-defensive reflex (POR) are most suitable for the search and rescue service. Similar qualities are inherent in some breeds (Airedale, Scottish Shepherd (collie), husky), which are most often used for this kind of activity. Knowledge of the principles of the development of these properties is of great importance for understanding the formation of the behavior of a growing animal, and, consequently, for the presentation of appropriate requirements for a puppy in each period of its life.
In this article, we will focus on modern scientific information about the process of formation of orienting-exploratory and passive-defensive behavior in the course of the individual development of a dog. These manifestations of higher nervous activity play an essential role in the development of useful skills in a puppy and its subsequent training, facilitating or slowing down learning.
OR is one of the most important reactions manifested in animals and humans when the environment changes. IP Pavlov wrote: The reflex, which could be called an exploratory reflex, or, as I call it, the reflex "what is it?", Is hardly appreciated enough. The biological meaning of this reflex is enormous. If the animal did not have this reaction, then its life every minute, one might say, would hang by a thread.
IP Pavlov considered OR as an active motor reaction of an animal to any fluctuation in the environment, arising primarily to "novelty", changes in certain environmental conditions and providing the most complete perception of these changes. Analyzing the development of OR in the course of individual life, I. P. Pavlov proposed to distinguish in it:
1. The primary reflex of biological caution, expressed in inhibition of motor activity.
2. The actual research reflex, when the animal is directed to the source of irritation in order to better understand and evaluate it.
Studies of the last two decades have established that OR is an integral part of the formation of conditioned reflex forms of adaptive activity. The occurrence of OR increases the volume of ascending activation from the reticular (reticular) formation to the overlying subcortical and cortical structures, as a result of which the level of their excitability increases, which is necessary to close the temporary connection and develop the corresponding skill. OR is also an important component of analytical activity, the elementary forms of which are observed already in the first days of a puppy's life.
In one form or another, the orienting reflex manifests itself in puppies immediately after birth: participation in providing the simplest analysis of stimuli and the implementation of unconditioned reflexes. The timing of the onset of the initial primitive form of OR and its transition to mature orientational-exploratory behavior depends on the degree of morphological, biochemical and functional maturity of the corresponding analyzer. According to V. A. Troshikhin (1952, 1953) and G. M. Nikitina (1954), RR in puppies arises from the first day of life, first on olfactory, tactile and gustatory stimuli affecting phylogenetically old and functionally more mature analyzers … If you bring a cloth smeared with some odorous substance to the muzzle of a 1-2-day-old puppy, it freezes, turns the muzzle, turns away or reaches for it. Essentially,that in response to odor irritations, the puppy's OR is immediately distinguished by its persistence and clearly expressed character. The reaction to tactile stimuli (touch) is initially imperfect and generalized. If, for example, a puppy moves, then touching it causes a decrease in general motor activity, a short-term cessation of whining, and indistinct head turns. In the initial calm state, the same stimulus causes increased motor activity. In the initial calm state, the same stimulus causes increased motor activity. In the initial calm state, the same stimulus causes increased motor activity.
From the 10-15th day, such a generalized form of OR is replaced by a distinct local movement - turning the head towards the stimulus and elements of its study. Following the olfactory, gustatory and tactile analyzers, which continue to develop for a certain time after birth, there is a gradual maturation and activation of other sensory organs - auditory and visual, These analyzers (landing) perceive and process signals distant from the puppy, due to which they expand and the growing puppy's relationship with the environment becomes more complex. The OR associated with these phylogenetically younger analyzers appears at a later date. Thus, the reaction to sound in a generalized form, according to V. A. Troshikhin, is revealed in puppies from 4-6 days of age, when the puppy's ear canals are still closed.
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