Loach Fish (Cobitidae)

Table of contents:

Loach Fish (Cobitidae)
Loach Fish (Cobitidae)

Video: Loach Fish (Cobitidae)

Video: Loach Fish (Cobitidae)
Video: Top 10 Loaches for Your Aquarium 2023, December

Loaches are small freshwater bottom fish. The body shape of loaches is cylindrical or slightly compressed from the sides (often the front part is slightly flattened in the dorsal-abdominal direction), slippery, covered with very small, sometimes imperceptible scales hidden in the skin. The skin has numerous glands that secrete copious mucus, which prevents damage to the body when buried in the ground and moving between underwater objects.

Acantaphthalmus, thorn-eye (Pangio kuhlii), photo photography carp fish
Acantaphthalmus, thorn-eye (Pangio kuhlii), photo photography carp fish

Acantophthalmus Kuhl (Pangio kuhlii)

The dorsal and anal fins are very short. The mouth is small, usually located ventrally and surrounded by 6–12 antennae. The head is covered with bare skin or (in Lepidocephalichthys, Lepidocephalus and Leptobotia) there are scales on the head. The eyes are small. The upper jaw is formed only by the intermaxillary. The intergill space is very wide, the gill openings are very narrow. The nostrils are extended into small tubes. The pharyngeal bones are thin, the teeth sitting on them are numerous, similar to the branchial stamens. The swim bladder is partially or completely enclosed in a bone capsule. Typically tubular nostrils and thornless fins. The color is often dark and brown, sometimes spots and stripes.

Two-line pinched fish (Cobitis bilineata), photo photography aquarium fish
Two-line pinched fish (Cobitis bilineata), photo photography aquarium fish

Two-line pinched (Cobitis bilineata). Photo © Claudio Pia

Most loaches are crepuscular and nocturnal. Fish of small size - 8-20 cm. The giant of the family is catfish char 36 cm long from the headwaters of the Yangtze. They lead a sedentary lifestyle, stay at the bottom and, in case of danger, hide in shelters or burrow into the ground. In general, representatives of loaches are quite the same type both in appearance and in ecology, however, they develop water bodies of the most different types - from high-mountain rivers and lakes to swampy areas. They tolerate a significant oxygen deficiency due to developed cutaneous and intestinal respiration. The larvae develop larval respiratory organs or external gills. Almost all loach benthophages or periphytonophages. Fish ripen by 10-15 months.

Amur loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), photo photograph loach fish
Amur loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), photo photograph loach fish

Amur loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus)

Representatives of this family live in small streams, small rivers, ponds, bays and the coastal zone of lakes. They are found almost throughout Eurasia, North and East Africa. The greatest species diversity is observed in Southeast and Central Asia and in India.

Ayumodoki, Japanese leptobotia (Leptobotia curta), photo photograph of a fish
Ayumodoki, Japanese leptobotia (Leptobotia curta), photo photograph of a fish

Japanese leptobotia (Leptobotia curta)

Systematics of the Loach fish family:

  • Genus: Acanthocobitis = Acanthocobitis

    Species: Acanthocobitis urophthalmus = Acanthocobitis urofthalmus, or ocellated

  • Genus: Acanthopsoides =
  • Genus: Acantopsis =
  • Genus: Barbatula Linck, 1789 = Baleen loach

    • Species: Barbatula barbatula Linnaeus, 1758 = Common char or European
    • Species: Barbatula merga Krynicki, 1840 = Krynicki Loach
    • Species: Barbatula toni Dybowski, 1869 = Siberian mustachioed char
  • Genus: Bibarba =
  • Genus: Botia = Botia

    • Species: Botia bredmorei = Botia Bredmorei
    • Kind: Botia datio = Botia Bengal
    • Species: Botia macracantha = Botia macracantha, or clown loach
    • Species: Botia macracanthus = Botia clown
    • Species: Botia modesta = Botia bluish
    • Species: Botia motietti = Botia tape
    • Species: Botia sidthimunki = Botia netted
    • Species: Botia striata = Botia zebra
  • Genus: Canthophrys =
  • Genus: Cobitis Linnaeus, 1758 = Pinches

    • Species: Cobitis aurata Filippi, 1865 = Central Asian spiny
    • Species: Cobitis caspia Eichwald, 1838 = Caspian spiny
    • Species: Cobitis caucasica Berg, 1906 = Ciscaucasian spiny
    • Species: Cobitis choii Kim et Son, 1984 = Choi plucked
    • Species: Cobitis lutheri Rendahl, 1935 = Luther's spike
    • Species: Cobitis melanoleuca Nichols = Siberian spiny
    • Species: Cobitis rossomeridionalis Vasiljieva et Vasilijev, 1998 = South Russian spined
    • Species: Cobitis taenia Linnaeus, 1758 = Common pinch
  • Genus: Iksookimia =
  • Genus: Kichulchoia =
  • Genus: Koreocobitis =
  • Genus: Kottelatlimia =
  • Genus: Lefua Herzenstein, 1887 = Loach octopus

    Species: Lefua costata Kessler, 1876 = Loach

  • Genus: Lepidocephalichthys =
  • Genus: Lepidocephalus =
  • Genus: Leptobotia Вleker, 1870 = Leptobotia

    Species: Leptobotia mantschurica Berg, 1907 = Leptobotia, or leptobotia

  • Genus: Liniparhomaloptera = Liniparhomaloptera

    Species: Liniparhomaloptera disparis = Liniparhomaloptera disparis

  • Genus: Microcobitis =
  • Genus: Misgurnus Lacepede, 1803 = Loaches

    • Species: Misgurnus anguillicaudatus Cantor, 1842 = Amur loach
    • Species: Misgurnus fossilis Linnaeus, 1758 = Common loach
  • Genus: Neoeucirrhichthys =
  • Genus: Niwaella =
  • Genus: Pangio Hasselt, 1823 = Acantophthalmus

    • View: Pangio kuhlii Valenciennes, 1846 = Acantophthalmus Kühl
    • Species: Pangio myersi = Acantophthalmus Myers
  • Genus: Paralepidocephalus =
  • Genus: Protocobitis =
  • Genus: Sabanejewia = Sabaneev's pinches

    • Species: Sabanejewia aurata Filippi, 1865 = Central Asian pinched
    • Species: Sabanejewia caspia Eichwald, 1838 = Caspian spiny
    • Species: Sabanejewia caucasica Berg, 1899 = Caucasian pinch
  • Genus: Theriodes =


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