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Video: Nitrogen And Its Compounds
2023 Author: Molly Page | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-27 22:49
Nitrogen in water is slightly soluble and harmless to fish; only with very strong aeration in a small volume, excessive pressure can occur and nitrogen bubbles entering the circulatory system of fish clog the vessels.
Nitrogen is present in protein molecules, which are found in fish excrement, food residues, dead plant parts, dead snails and other waste. When this organic substance is decomposed by heterotrophic bacteria, amino acids are formed and then ammonia and ammonium.
Ammonia, the most poisonous of all nitrogen compounds, is dangerous for small fish even at a concentration of 0.06 mg / l, and at 0.2 mg / l with prolonged exposure it is fatal to fish. In contrast, ammonium is practically harmless. The pH value largely determines which of these compounds is formed in the predominant amount. So, at pH 6.9, water contains only ammonium, at pH 7 - 1% ammonia and 99% ammonium, at pH 8 - 4% ammonia, and at pH 9 - 25% ammonia. Therefore, if the pH in the aquarium does not exceed 7, then there is no acute danger of fish poisoning with ammonia, but when changing a large amount of water (up to 1/2 volume) fresh, with a pH of more than 7, a significant amount of ammonia can form from ammonia, which will lead to fish poisoning …
Bacteria Nitrosomonas ammonia and ammonium are converted into nitrite, the concentration of which should not be exceeded in 1 mg / l, as it will become dangerous for fish. Then the bacteria Nitrobacter come into action, which convert nitrite into nitrate, which is dangerous for fish only in high concentrations - from 80 mg / l.
Ammonium and nitrate are good plant nutrition
The described process is called nitrification and the bacteria involved in it live mainly in the soil of the aquarium and in the filter material of the biological filter. These bacteria consume oxygen in the course of their activity, and if it is lacking, the process slows down and the water is enriched with ammonia and nitrite. Anaerobic bacteria, which do not need oxygen in the water, can enter into action, converting nitrate to nitrite and ammonia.
Since plants are not able to use all the nitrogen compounds as nutrients, and bacteria can cope with all waste, their concentration will constantly increase. Therefore, the aquarist must follow the rules for maintaining the aquarium. Particular attention should be paid to the cleanliness of the aquarium when the pH is above 7.5.
A constant flow of fresh water makes it possible to maintain the content of nitrogen compounds at a more or less constant level.
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Getting it right is the path to maintaining a healthy aquarium . The nitrogen cycle is responsible for biological filtration of the entire system. It prevents water from being polluted, removes organic pollution, waste and more … By understanding all this, we can prevent many problems in the future